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Archived - Chapter 2
Jobs, Growth, and an Economy That Works for Everyone

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There is no country better placed than Canada to weather the coming global economic slowdown and thrive in the years ahead. We have the most talented and resilient workforce in the world, and we are a country that skilled workers want to move to. We have the key resources the global economy needs, and as we enter an era of friendshoring and our closest partners shift their strategic reliance from dictatorships to democracies, they are looking to Canada to provide them with those resources.

Canadian workers need a robust industrial policy that will deliver good-paying jobs by seizing the opportunities of the net-zero economy, by attracting new private investment, and by providing key resources to the world. Investing in Canada’s future is an investment in workers.

The next few years are an historic opportunity for Canada—a time when we can continue building an economy that works for everyone, and create the good middle class jobs that Canadians will count on for generations to come. But if we are to capitalize on the opportunities before us in the years to come, we need to step up and make more smart investments today.

The 2022 Fall Economic Statement builds on investments made in and since Budget 2022 to grow Canada’s economy, create opportunities for workers, and continue to address Canada’s challenge with investment and productivity that stretches back decades. Significant further measures will be introduced in Budget 2023.

The 2022 Fall Economic Statement includes:

2.1 Investing in Skills for a Net-Zero Economy

As the global economy evolves to meet new realities, like the rising demand for sustainable energy, Canadian workers will be in higher demand than ever. Investments that help Canadian workers lead the way and thrive in good-paying jobs will be essential to Canada’s long-term prosperity. To put workers across Canada at the forefront of building a net-zero economy, the federal government will be there to help ensure Canadians have the skills they need to succeed, and that our economy has the workers it needs to thrive.

Building on Budget 2021 investments in skills development, including through the Sectoral Workforce Solutions Program, Skills for Success, and the Apprenticeship Service, the government is taking new action to ensure that Canadians have the skills they need.

Further details on all these measures will be provided in the first half of 2023.

2.2 Securing Canada’s Competitiveness and Creating Good Jobs for Workers

Since 2016, the federal government has taken important steps to position Canada at the forefront of the fight against climate change, while also working to seize the economic opportunities provided by the global transition to net-zero.

Canada’s commitment to putting a price on pollution has provided an incentive for businesses and households to pollute less, conserve energy, and invest in low-carbon technologies and services. Since 2016, the government has made significant investments to help Canadian industries transition to net-zero and to build the supply chains required for the emerging green global economy. For example:

Investments like these have helped Canada attract new investment from around the world, including new agreements on electric vehicle manufacturing and critical minerals in 2022.

However, it is clear that Canada will need to do even more to secure our competitive advantage and continue creating opportunities for Canadian workers. This challenge has become even more pressing with the United States’ recent passage of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA).

Since 2015, the government has been making foundational investments in clean technology, many of which the U.S. is now doing with the IRA. This U.S. legislation will play an important role in the global fight against climate change and will further accelerate the building of sustainable North American supply chains. Importantly, the IRA’s “Buy North American” policy for critical minerals and electric vehicle tax credits is also good news for Canadian workers and Canadian companies.

But while the IRA will undoubtedly accelerate the ongoing transition to a net-zero North American economy, it also offers enormous financial supports to firms that locate their production in the United States—from electric vehicle battery production, to hydrogen, to biofuels, and beyond. Without new measures to keep pace with the IRA, Canada risks being left behind.

Building on Canada’s world-class value proposition—our stable political system, vast access to resources, low-cost electricity, and a highly skilled workforce—the government is steadfast in its commitment to respond to the IRA and ensure that Canada remains a first-choice destination for businesses to invest and create jobs. The government is committed to taking the actions needed to provide a level playing field between Canada and the United States.

As a first step in Canada’s response, the government is launching the Canada Growth Fund, which will help to attract billions of dollars in new private capital to create good-paying jobs and support Canada’s economic transformation, as well as bringing forward two new measures to support the adoption of clean technology across Canada.

Significant additional actions will be announced in Budget 2023.

Snapshot of Recent Major Investment Decisions in Canada

Over the past year, a number of significant investment commitments have been made in Canada, which will help to build the economy of the future. Some examples include:

  • March: Honda Canada announced its plan to invest nearly $1.4 billion to retool its manufacturing operations in Alliston, Ontario, to launch the next generation of hybrid-electric vehicles, supported by $131.6 million in federal funding.
  • April: General Motors of Canada announced its plan to invest over $2 billion at its Oshawa, Ontario, assembly plant and its CAMI assembly plant in Ingersoll, Ontario. The investment is supported by $259 million from the federal government to help advance the electrification of Canada’s automotive sector.
  • May: Stellantis announced its plan to invest in a multi-billion dollar project to support plants in Windsor and Brampton, Ontario, to implement flexible vehicle platforms at both plants and increase its production of electric vehicles, with support of up to $529 million from the federal government.
  • June: The government announced up to $100 million in support to minimize the carbon footprint and improve worker safety at BHP's $7.5 billion Jansen Stage 1 mine in Saskatchewan, the first new major potash project in Canada in over 50 years.
  • July: Umicore announced its plan to invest $1.5 billion in a net-zero facility that will produce essential components of electric vehicle batteries and create 1,000 jobs during construction and hundreds of permanent positions.
  • August: Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz, and the federal government announced memoranda of understanding to deepen cooperation on electric vehicles and critical minerals supply chains. October: Rio Tinto Fer et Titane (RTFT) announced in Quebec its plans to increase its production of critical minerals, cut emissions, and help build clean technology supply chains, supported by up to $222 million in federal funding.

Launching the Canada Growth Fund

Canada’s road to achieving our climate targets, creating and maintaining good-paying jobs, and building a net-zero economy that works for everyone will require the transformation of our industrial base, the commercialization and deployment of low-carbon technologies and resources, and the continued growth of clean technology businesses across Canada.

Canada has an opportunity to lead the way on the road to net-zero  and ensure that Canadian workers can benefit from good jobs for decades to come. However, this will require investment on a scale that government alone cannot provide.

There are trillions of dollars in private capital waiting to be spent in creating the good jobs and prosperity for workers that a net-zero economy will bring, and Canada is competing with other countries to attract the private investment we need. To succeed, Canada needs to address two challenges.

First, we need to incentivize companies to take risks and invest in cutting edge technology in Canada. Second, we need to keep pace with a growing list of jurisdictions which are using public funding to attract private capital and to create the jobs and prosperity for workers that accompany it—from the United States to the European Union and beyond.

Budget 2022 announced the government’s intention to create a Canada Growth Fund that will help to attract private capital to invest in building a thriving, sustainable Canadian economy with thousands of new, good-paying jobs. The 2022 Fall Economic Statement outlines the design, operations, and investment strategy of the Growth Fund.

The mandate of the Growth Fund will be to make investments that attract substantial private sector investment in Canadian businesses and projects to help seize the opportunities provided by a net-zero economy. The Growth Fund’s investments will help meet the following important national economic policy goals:

The Growth Fund will make investments that offset risks to unlock private capital. To do this, the Growth Fund will invest on a concessionary basis.

The Growth Fund will be a financial solution provider that will use a flexible suite of investment tools, including but not limited to concessional loans and contracts for difference. Such contracts provide a more predictable environment for decision making about long-term investments by reducing price and other risks. For example, carbon contracts for difference are a tool that ensures businesses can plan long-term investments in decarbonization and clean technologies based on a predictable price on carbon pollution and carbon credits. This investment flexibility will enable the Growth Fund to tailor a specific investment based on a project or company’s need and risk—all with a view to unlocking private investment and the creation of new jobs in Canada.

In order to maximize the Growth Fund’s effectiveness, it will be operated independently from government by a team of professional investors reporting to an expert board of directors. To ensure public transparency and accountability, the government will establish a market-leading reporting framework for: investment policies; deal selection and application processes; Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) compliance; actual investments and, measuring performance of the Growth Fund against its mandate.

The Growth Fund will be launched by the end of 2022, initially as a subsidiary of the Canada Development Investment Corporation (CDEV), so that it can immediately begin to make the critical investments needed to meet Canada’s climate and economic goals. The government will take steps to put in place a permanent, independent structure for the Growth Fund, in the first half of 2023.

Further details about the mandate, operations, financial instruments, investment approaches, and performance frameworks that will guide the Growth Fund can be found in the related Department of Finance backgrounder.

An Investment Tax Credit for Clean Technologies

Helping Canadian companies adopt clean technologies will create jobs, ensure Canadian businesses remain globally competitive, and reduce Canada’s emissions at the same time. In Budget 2022, the federal government announced that the Department of Finance would engage with experts to establish an investment tax credit of up to 30 per cent for investments in clean technologies, with a focus on net-zero technologies, battery storage solutions, and clean hydrogen. Following the adoption of the Inflation Reduction Act in the United States, the need for a competitive clean technology tax credit in Canada is more important than ever.

To incentivize companies to create good jobs, those that adhere to certain labour conditions will be eligible for the full 30 per cent credit, while those that do not will only be eligible for a credit of 20 per cent. Labour conditions will include paying prevailing wages based on local labour market conditions, and ensuring that apprenticeship training opportunities are being created. The Department of Finance will consult with a broad group of stakeholders, but especially with unions, on how best to attach labour conditions to the proposed tax credit. The Department of Finance will also consult on any additional eligible technologies (e.g. large scale-nuclear and large-scale hydroelectric). Specific details on the two labour conditions and any additional eligible technologies will be announced in Budget 2023.

As proposed, the investment tax credit is expected to cost $6.7 billion over five years, starting in 2023-24.

The credit would be available as of the day of Budget 2023 and no longer in effect at the start of 2035, subject to a phase-out starting in 2032.

An Investment Tax Credit for Clean Hydrogen

Canada will be a reliable, premium supplier of energy in a net-zero world, and clean hydrogen is an essential part of this.

In the 2022 Fall Economic Statement, the government is proceeding with its commitment, announced in Budget 2022, to establish an investment tax credit to support investments in clean hydrogen production.

In the coming weeks, the Department of Finance will launch a consultation on how best to implement an investment tax credit for clean hydrogen based on the lifecycle carbon intensity of hydrogen. The U.S. Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) introduced carbon intensity tiers to guide the level of support to clean hydrogen projects. As outlined in the IRA, support would begin to be provided when emissions from the production of clean hydrogen are 4.0kg of CO2e or less per kg of hydrogen, while the highest level of support would be provided where emissions are 0.45kg of CO2e or less per kg of hydrogen. The consultation will seek input on:

Through this investment tax credit, the government will promote jobs and skills for a net-zero economy, such that the level of the credit will depend on whether certain labour protection requirements are met. The Department of Finance will consult with a broad group of stakeholders, but especially with unions, on how best to attach labour conditions to the investment tax credit for clean hydrogen to ensure that wages paid are at the prevailing level in the local labour market, and that apprenticeship training opportunities are being created.

The proposed investment tax credit will be refundable, and available for eligible investments made as of the day of Budget 2023. The credit will be phased out after 2030. The lowest carbon intensity tier that meets all eligibility requirements is proposed to receive an investment tax credit of at least 40 per cent. If a company does not meet certain labour conditions, the maximum tax credit rate will be reduced by 10 percentage points, which will help incentivize companies to support and create good jobs for the workers our economy relies on.

Investing in Canada’s Advanced Manufacturing Competitiveness

Canada’s strength in research and development, combined with our skilled labour force, have helped us to excel in areas of advanced manufacturing for decades, including in the automotive sector.

As the world transitions to a net-zero economy, the development and production of clean technologies, including electric vehicle and battery manufacturing, will play an increasingly important role in Canada’s economy and in creating new, good-paying jobs for Canadian workers.

As key components of the future net-zero economy, these sectors are highly and globally competitive. Other countries, including the United States, are taking significant action to attract these industries and the jobs that come with them. Canada must and will keep pace.

To do this, the government will work with industry experts and unions to build on past investments and help make Canada the premier destination for investment in clean technology manufacturing that will create and maintain good-paying jobs, and help build a net-zero economy.

Following these consultations, new measures will be announced, as part of Budget 2023, to ensure Canada’s competitiveness and create good jobs.

Building on Canada’s Critical Minerals Strategy

As Canada’s allies work to ensure their energy security and countries around the world seek to secure the technologies required for the net-zero transition, global demand is soaring for critical minerals like lithium, nickel, copper, and rare earth elements essential for clean technologies such as electric vehicles, batteries, and renewable energy technologies.

Fortunately, Canada has an abundance of the critical minerals required to drive a clean and digital global economy. With smart investments that build on the $3.8 billion committed in Budget 2022 to launch Canada’s first Critical Minerals Strategy, Canada can play a leading role in the essential global critical mineral supply chain, and create thousands of good-paying jobs for Canadians from coast-to-coast-to-coast—all while protecting the environment and working in partnership with Indigenous Peoples.

Canada will take the necessary steps to attract investment, stay competitive, and accelerate the net-zero transition for critical minerals projects. This means pursuing opportunities for Canada across every stage of the critical minerals value chain, including exploration, mining, processing, manufacturing, and recycling. The government will ensure that Canada’s tax and investment programs, skills training, and research and development ecosystem help to grow our economy and support our democratic allies with sustainably developed clean technologies and goods.

Ensuring the Resilience of Canada’s Transportation Supply Chains

Canada’s supply chains play a critical role in Canada’s economy and in Canadians’ quality of life. They enable our businesses to move their products to international markets, and ensure timely access to the goods that Canadians need.

To help bolster Canada’s economic capacity and the opportunities for our businesses to expand into global markets, the federal government launched the National Trade Corridors Fund (NTCF) in 2017 to improve the efficiency, reliability, and resilience of our transportation supply chains. To date, the government has provided $4.6 billion to the NTCF, of which over $2.8 billion has been allocated to more than 130 projects across Canada, which are doing things like increasing the capacity of our roadways and railways, and enhancing our trade gateways so it is easier for Canadian businesses to get their goods to consumers around the world.

However, global supply chains have been hard-hit by a series of unprecedented shocks, including the pandemic, extreme weather events driven by climate change, and the illegal Russian invasion of Ukraine. Given these unprecedented global challenges, Budget 2022 provided $603.2 million over five years, starting in 2022-23, to ease the movement of goods in Canada’s transportation networks through new infrastructure funding, supply chain digitization, and action to reduce regulatory burden on industry.

In addition, in January 2022, the government announced the creation of a National Supply Chain Task Force to provide independent advice on how best to address congestion and strengthen Canada’s transportation supply chains. The National Supply Chain Task Force delivered its final report on October 6, 2022, on ways to best address congestion and strengthen Canada’s transportation supply chains.

The government is taking immediate actions that align with the Task Force’s findings, including:

As part of this effort, the government will introduce legislative amendments to help ease congestion and strengthen our strategic trade gateways by updating the way that Canada's ports are managed and operated. Additionally, the government is continuing to advance proposed amendments to the Freight Rail Data Regulations (Transportation Information Regulations) to collect new freight rail information to enhance the transparency and competitiveness of the freight rail system.

The government remains committed to bringing forward a National Supply Chain Strategy to improve Canada’s supply chains and bolster our economic capacity. Further details will be announced in Budget 2023.

2.3 A Productive and Innovative Economy

Launching a Canadian Innovation and Investment Agency

For decades, federal investments in science, technology, and innovation have led to the creation of world-class research facilities, helped to employ top global talent in emerging technology areas, and supported startup ecosystems that have given rise to new, innovative companies that create good jobs across Canada. And while Canada is currently a world leader in higher education expenditures on research and development (almost double the OECD average), Canadian productivity still lags its global peers.

In order for Canadian workers to benefit from Canada’s world-class research and inventions, Canadian businesses across all sectors—including critical traditional industries such as mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing—need to make investments that will help them innovate, commercialize, grow, and create good jobs in a changing global economy.

Budget 2022 announced the government’s intention to establish a Canadian innovation and investment agency, and committed $1 billion over five years, starting in 2022-23, to support its initial operations. Using best practices established by similar agencies around the world, including Business Finland (formerly Finnish TEKES) and the Israel Innovation Authority, the Canadian agency will work to help new and established Canadian firms innovate, commercialize research, and create new economic opportunities for workers and businesses in Canada.

Example: How the Agency Will Support Research and Development

Jessica runs a medium-sized battery manufacturing business in Calgary that specializes in the production of lithium-ion batteries—a key component of electric vehicles, medical devices, and portable electronics. To meet the growing demand for lithium-ion batteries and address the expected increase in used batteries from aging electric vehicles, Jessica sees an opportunity to scale her team and establish her business as a leader in lithium-ion battery recycling processes.

To make an investment in a large-scale, multi-year research and development (R&D) project less challenging, Jessica applies to the agency for funding. The agency experts provide Jessica with advice and review the project to assess its technical feasibility and its potential for eventual job-creating, large-scale production in Canada.

The agency provides financial support to conduct the preliminary design of different recycling processes and the systematic evaluation of results. With this support, Jessica is able to invest in the creation of a battery recycling R&D team that attracts leading scientist and engineers, and is able to develop a novel battery recycling process that can scale up and create new jobs.

The agency will be accountable to Parliament but will operate independently from government on a day-to-day basis and draw on private sector experts to create new jobs, generate new and improved goods and services, and help Canadian businesses succeed in a changing global economy.

Further details on the new agency will be released in a blueprint in the coming weeks.

Separately, the Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SR&ED) tax incentive program continues to be a cornerstone of Canada’s innovation strategy by supporting the salaries and wages of workers conducting R&D in Canada, with the goal of encouraging Canadian businesses of all sizes to invest in innovation that drives economic growth, while developing a more innovative Canadian workforce.

In Budget 2022, the federal government announced its intention to review the SR&ED program to ensure it is efficient and providing adequate support, which would include consideration of adopting a patent box regime.

Work is underway on this review and further details will follow in Budget 2023.

Modernizing National Research Council Facilities

The National Research Council serves as an indispensable partner to Canadian businesses and innovators, from supporting the R&D of Canadian-made aircraft to designing systems for year-round sustainable food production in the Canadian North. The National Research Council maintains a network of facilities across Canada that provide researchers in business, academia, and government with access to the sites and expertise needed to innovate, develop, scale up, certify, and demonstrate technologies.

This funding would continue ongoing efforts to modernize the National Research Council and help ensure it is able to effectively collaborate with business and university partners.

Encouraging Investment in Major Projects

Canada’s abundance of natural resources has contributed to our economic growth for generations. Ensuring that resource and other major projects—from clean energy to critical minerals and beyond—can continue to be developed responsibly with meaningful Indigenous participation is essential to Canada’s long-term prosperity.

Improving Regulatory Processes for Major Projects

A strong and efficient federal impact assessment regime is critical to ensuring that environmental protection, partnership with Indigenous Peoples, and economic development can move forward together. In this context, the government committed in Budget 2022 to consider the funding requirements related to the assessment of major projects.

This funding will ensure agencies designed to protect our environment can increase their capacity and improve the efficiency of assessments in order to respond to a growing number of major projects being proposed.

The Impact Assessment Agency of Canada and the Canada Energy Regulator will continue to recover a portion of their costs from the parties whose applications they are reviewing and assessing.

Ensuring Indigenous Communities Benefit From Major Projects

As announced in Budget 2022, work is underway to develop a national benefits-sharing framework, in partnership with Indigenous communities, to ensure that First Nations and Métis communities can directly benefit from major resource projects in their territories and that Inuit communities benefit from major resource projects in Inuit Nunangat. Further details will be provided in 2023.

Making Progress on Canada’s Infrastructure Investments

The Investing in Canada Infrastructure Program is providing $33.5 billion for public infrastructure across Canada. Under this program, provinces and territories prioritize and submit projects to Infrastructure Canada for review. To date, the program has approved more than $23 billion for over 5,200 projects submitted by provinces and territories across the country.

To more quickly deliver needed infrastructure projects, the government signalled its intent in Budget 2022 to accelerate the deadline for provinces to commit their remaining funding to priority projects to March 31, 2023. The 2022 Fall Economic Statement reaffirms this intent, as well as the Budget 2022 commitment to reallocate funds left uncommitted to other priorities. The existing deadline of March 31, 2025 will remain unchanged for the territories.

Table 2.1
Funding Remaining, by Province, in the Investing in Canada Infrastructure Program*

Remaining Project Funding
(Budget 2022)
Remaining Project Funding
(October 19, 2022)
$ (millions) Percentage of total
project funding envelope
$ (millions) Percentage of total
project funding envelope
Alberta $60.3 2% $50.5 1%
British Columbia $1,312.6 34% $661.3 17%
Manitoba $13.6 1% $13.6 1%
New Brunswick $392.4 58% $113.3 17%
Newfoundland and Labrador $326.3 59% $212.8 38%
Nova Scotia $372.0 45% $258.9 31%
Ontario $1,056.8 10% $457.1 4%
Prince Edward Island $89.8 25% $56.9 16%
Quebec $3,299.0 44% $2,754.1 37%
Saskatchewan $375.2 42% $248.5 28%

Source: Infrastructure Canada *Remaining project funding includes funding for projects that provinces have signaled to the federal government but not yet submitted for approval.

Canada’s 2023-2025 Immigration Levels Plan

Immigration is core to our identity as Canadians, while also being a key driver of Canada’s economic growth. Since 2015, the federal government has significantly increased immigration levels, resulting in a population growth between 2016 and 2021 that is almost twice the rate of other G7 countries. This year, Canada expects to welcome more than 430,000 immigrants—a new record.

Canada’s new immigration targets continue this trend, with the 2023-25 Immigration Levels Plan tabled on November 1, 2022 laying out a path to further increase immigration in the coming years to reach 500,000 immigrants in 2025—the majority of whom will be skilled workers who will help to address persistent labour shortages, including in healthcare, manufacturing, and the building trades. This builds on steps the government has already taken to respond to Canada’s labour market needs as part of the Express Entry System.

These immigration targets also include family reunification and important humanitarian commitments, including a plan to welcome at least 40,000 Afghan refugees and a new permanent residence stream for Ukrainians who wish to stay in Canada following Russia’s illegal invasion of Ukraine.

At the same time, the government will continue to invest in processing capacity to ensure that all applications are processed as quickly as possible and to eliminate backlogs.

Investing in Jobs for Young Canadians

Young people have a critical role to play in Canada's economy. The federal government is committed to providing youth—and particularly those from marginalized communities—with the supports and opportunities they need to develop the skills required to find and keep good jobs.

  1. $301.4 million over two years, starting in 2023-24, through the Youth Employment and Skills Strategy Program, to provide wraparound supports and job placements to young people facing employment barriers;
  2. $400.5 million over two years, starting in 2023-24, to Canada Summer Jobs to support a total of approximately 70,000 annual summer job placements; and,
  3. $100.2 million over three years, starting in 2022-23, to continue supporting work placements for First Nations youth through the Income Assistance-First Nations Youth Employment Strategy Pilot.

These measures will help young Canadians gain valuable skills and work experience, setting them up for a lifetime of success in the job market.

Protecting the Rights of Road Transportation Workers

In the trucking industry, there is a long history of companies using the misleading “Drivers Inc.” practice, whereby drivers are encouraged to self-incorporate and operate as independent contractors without being provided information on the downsides of the practice. By not classifying drivers as employees, companies are denying them access to important rights and entitlements under the Canada Labour Code, such as paid sick leave, health and safety standards, employer contributions for Employment Insurance and the Canada Pension Plan, and provincial or territorial workplace injury compensation.

In January 2021, amendments to Part III of the Code came into force, making such intentional misclassification of employees illegal. In a recent pilot enforcement project to educate federally-regulated transportation employers about the new rules, more than 60 per cent were found to be in contravention of the misclassification rules. Further action responds to calls by the Canadian Trucking Alliance and Teamsters Canada, representing both employers and workers, to address this coercive practice.

The Canada Revenue Agency is currently working across sectors, including the road transportation industry, to encourage greater awareness and foster compliance with tax rules governing the use of incorporated employees. Further details will be provided in Budget 2023. Canadians are encouraged to report suspected tax avoidance to the Canada Revenue Agency, either online or by phone.

Overview of Gender-Based Analysis Plus

The Youth Employment and Skills Strategy (YESS) program will directly benefit young people, including those facing multiple barriers to employment and groups underrepresented in the labour market. In 2022-23, the YESS Program is estimated to support 24,000 youth and of these, 65 per cent are expected to be from one of the strategy’s priority groups (e.g., Indigenous Peoples, youth with disabilities, racialized youth, youth in rural communities). Approximately 45 per cent of the seven million young people in Canada identify as one of these priority groups. Young women in particular benefit from measures such as the YESS program and Canada Summer Jobs, as they have traditionally represented between 51 to 60 per cent of clients served on average.

The increased immigration levels associated with the 2023-25 Immigration Levels Plan contribute to further increasing Canada’s diversity, as permanent residents come from all over the world. The impact of this measure is expected to be gender balanced—similar to historical trends. For example, in 2021, 49 per cent of all admissions were women and 51 per cent were men.

Investments to advance business innovation, health, manufacturing, and clean technologies not only support economic growth, but also create opportunities for a highly educated, skilled, and diverse workforce, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) sectors:

Chapter 2
Jobs, Growth, and an Economy that Works for Everyone
millions of dollars
2.1 Investing in Skills for a Net-Zero Economy - 35 75 83 63 55 310
Investing in Skills for a Net-Zero Economy - 35 75 83 63 55 310
2.2 Securing Canada’s Competitiveness and Creating Good Jobs for Workers - 1,070 1,110 1,135 1,600 1,735  6,650
An Investment Tax Credit for Clean Technologies - 1,070 1,110 1,135 1,600 1,735  6,650
2.3 A Productive and Innovative Economy 148 955 1,073 577 598 617  3,968
Modernizing National Research Council Facilities 19 26 30 38 47 57 216
Improving Regulatory Processes for Major Projects 46 241 250 249 248 248 1,282
Canada's 2023-2025 Immigration Levels Plan 50 299 403 285 298 307 1,642
Investing in Jobs for Young Canadians 33 391 392 - - -   816
Less: Funds Sourced from Existing Departmental Resources
- -7 -7 - - - -14
Protecting the Rights of Road Transportation Workers - 6 5 5 5 5  26
Chapter 2 - Net Fiscal Impact 148 2,060 2,258 1,794 2,261 2,407 10,928
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