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Budget 2024
Statement and Impacts Report on Gender, Diversity, and Inclusion

Statement and Impacts Report on Gender, Diversity, and Inclusion(PDF, 3.4 MB)

Statement on Gender Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion

A foundational strength of Canada is its diversity. Since the 2016 Fall Economic Statement our government has expressly included gender and diversity in the development of policy, taxation and resource allocation decisions.

The Canadian Gender Budgeting Act which came into effect in December 2018, enshrined gender budgeting in legislation. This approach mandated reporting on the gender and diversity impacts for all new budget measures in every budget cycle. Budget 2024 constitutes the fifth annual report.

Canada's gender budgeting approach has yielded significant positive results and continues to evolve––leveraging key strengths and identifying areas where improvements are most needed.

Evolution of Gender Budgeting in Canada
Evolution of Gender Budgeting in Canada
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Evolution of Gender Budgeting in Canada

  • 2016 – Commitment in 2016 Fall Economic Statement to submit all future budgets to more rigorous gender-based analysis (GBA Plus).
  • 2017 – Budget 2017 includes the first ever Gender Statement.
  • 2018 – Gender Results Framework launched in Budget 2018, and gender equality is a core focus of the budget.  
  • 2018 – The Canadian Gender Budget Act is passed by Parliament in December 2018, enshrining the government’s commitment to decision-making that takes into consideration the impacts of policies on all types of Canadians.
  • 2019 – Budget 2019’s Gender Report includes GBA Plus summaries for each new budget measure
  • 2021 – Task Force on Women in the Economy established to advise the government on priorities for gender equality.
  • 2021 – Impacts Report expanded to also include assessment of impacts on Quality of Life. (Budget 2021)
  • 2021 – Budget 2021 announces significant investments for the Disaggregated Data Action Plan.
  • 2024 – 5th Budget Statement and Impacts Report is tabled.

In practice, Canada's gender budgeting approach, particularly its efforts towards incorporating both gender and diversity, has garnered international recognition. Amongst Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, Canada ranks first for gender budgeting best practices––with the 2022 OECD Survey on Gender Budgeting citing Canada's clear identification of gender equality objectives within the budget process and the systematic use of analytical tools, to inform gender-responsive policies.

Since 2015, the government has been working to close inequalities by building an economy that works for everyone. This is why the government has made and is making significant investments to strengthen Canada's social safety net for every generation—investments which enable more women to participate in the workforce, more children and seniors to get the dental care they need, more diverse Canadians to feel safe in their communities, and more support to addressing the violence Indigenous women and girls face. Key investments since 2015 to uplift Canadians include:

  • Early Learning and Child Care, which is supporting better economic outcomes for women, by making it possible for more women to participate in the workforce, while securing access to quality child care and learning, thus contributing to positive childhood development and the future well-being of children.
  • The interim Canada Dental Benefit has helped hundreds of thousands of children get the oral health care they need, and once fully implemented in 2025, the new Canadian Dental Care Plan will improve the long-term health of 9 million Canadians, who may have previously been unable to visit an oral health professional due to the cost.
  • The National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence provides targeted action to protect Canadians who experience or are at risk of experiencing violence because of their sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, or perceived gender.
  • The Federal 2SLGBTQI+ Action Plan advances the rights and equality for Two-Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and other sexually and gender diverse people in Canada.
  • The Implementation of the National Action Plan to End the Tragedy of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls is providing targeted, culturally-appropriate supports to Indigenous women, girls, and 2SLGBTQQIA people, while working to address the root causes of the violence they face.

In Budget 2024, the government is making investments to close the divide between generations. For younger Canadians, the government is taking new action to reduce tax advantages that benefit the wealthy, is investing to build more homes, faster, is strengthening Canada's social safety net, and is boosting productivity and innovation to grow an economy with better-paying opportunities.

These efforts will improve the lives of all younger Canadians, and their impacts will be greatest for lower-income and marginalized younger Canadians, who will benefit from new pathways to unlock a fair chance at building a good middle class life.

This starts with a focus on housing. Resolving Canada's housing crisis is critical for every generation and the most vulnerable Canadians. The government is building more community housing to make rent more affordable for lower-income Canadians, including through:

  • The $618.2 million Federal Community Housing Initiative;
  • The $15 billion Affordable Housing Fund, including a $1 billion top-up in Budget 2024;
  • The $1.5 billion Co-Operative Housing Development Program; and,
  • The $4.4 billion Housing Accelerator Fund, including a $400 million top-up in Budget 2024.

These investments provide Canadians and younger generations with opportunity –– finding an affordable home to buy or rent; having access to recreational spaces, amenities, and schools to raise families.

Having a place to call home creates a broad range of benefits. When survivors of domestic partner violence can find affordable housing, this creates a safe home base for their children to break cycles of violence and poverty. When Indigenous people can find affordable housing that meets their specific needs that means they can access cultural supports to help heal from the legacy of colonialism. When persons with disabilities are able to find low-barrier or barrier-free housing, this enables them to utilize the entirety of their homes.

To ensure that young people and future generations benefit from continued actions for sustained and equitable prosperity for all, this budget makes key investments to guarantee access to safe and affordable housing, help Canadians have a good quality of life while dealing with rising costs, and provide economic stability through good-paying jobs and opportunities for upskilling.

Building More Affordable Homes

The housing crisis impacts Canadians differently based on their background, and today it is disproportionately impacting younger Canadians, especially Millennials and Gen Z, who are renting at higher rates than older generations. For lower-income households in particular, affordability challenges erode disposable income and household savings capacity, which could otherwise be put towards educational and professional opportunities, upward mobility and general life satisfaction. One in five young adults not living with their parents live in unaffordable housing and spend 30 per cent or more of their pre-tax income on housing costs.  To offset these costs, younger Canadians are often living with their parents or extended family, or roommates, to cover high housing and living costs.  

To alleviate the rising housing costs, especially for young adults, Budget 2024 supports governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in initiatives to increase Canadians access affordable housing. These efforts will advance well-being and contribute to a prosperous Canada. For example, several studies have shown that housing affordability has a positive impact on the well-being of families with children and improves children's outcomes. For other groups such as women and newcomers, who are more likely to work minimum wage and part-time jobs, having a safe and affordable place to call home prevents them from returning to contexts of domestic violence.

Budget 2024 therefore adopts a nuanced approach to address the specific housing needs of the diverse Canadian population. Some measures (detailed in Chapter 1) include:

  • Addressing Homelessness and Encampments, which would reach those most at risk of homelessness, which include Indigenous people, Black and racialized people, and veterans. As an example, Indigenous people represent five per cent of the total population, but account for 39.1 per cent of shelter users in Canada. Women on the other hand are more likely to experience "hidden homelessness," as they tend to exhaust all informal supports and resources before seeking formal services. Domestic violence is a leading cause of homelessness among women. Moreover, it is estimated that 45 per cent of all people experiencing homelessness are disabled or diagnosed with a mental illness.
  • Sheltering Asylum Claimants, which would provide safe and secure housing for the rising number of asylum seekers coming to Canada. Asylum claimants are a diverse population, which can include 2SLGBTQI+ people, and Black and racialized people fleeing contexts of persecution, oppression, and conflict.
  • Protecting and Expanding Affordable Housing would support households in core housing need and help them maintain a good standard of living. In 2021, according to Statistics Canada, 7.7 per cent of the Canadian population experienced core housing need, with women and girls having a slightly higher incidence (8.2 per cent) compared to men and boys (7.1 per cent).
  • Measures to Save for a First Down Payment, Faster, would help young Canadians save for their first home, especially as the Canadian homeownership rate has been on the decline after peaking in 2011 (69.0 per cent).
  • Building Apartments, Bringing Rents Down, would benefit low- and middle-income renters, and particular subgroups that are more likely to be renters. Renters who more recently entered the housing market, who typically pay higher rents, are more likely to be Black, Arab, or Latin American (9.7 to 11.9 per cent), recent immigrants (16.7 per cent), and aged 18 to 34 (38.6 per cent). Single-parent family households are also more likely to be renters in core housing need (29.4 per cent), compared to the total population of renters (17.2 per cent).

Making Life More Affordable

For many Canadians the cost of living remains elevated. In addition to the costs associated with a place to call home, families still need to cover a range of basic needs, such as food, transportation, medical bills, and necessities for their children's well-being.

Recognizing how multiple costs can accumulate and squeeze household budgets, the government has in recent months taken actions such as the Grocery Rebate, to provide targeted inflation relief for 11 million low- and modest-income Canadians and families. Other measures also include Cracking Down on Predatory Lending, to ensure that the most vulnerable in our society --which often include low-income people, seniors, and newcomers --are not financially exploited. Increasing Canada Student Grants and Raising the interest-free Canada Student Loan limits have helped younger people to pursue their dreams regardless of their background or ability to pay.

There is recognition that transformative supports are still needed to help Canadians deal with affordability challenges.

  • Launching a National Pharmacare Plan will be transformative for those who rely on contraceptives and diabetes medications. Once agreements are reached with willing provinces and territories, up to 9 million Canadians of reproductive age will have better access to contraception and reproductive autonomy, improving their ability to plan for their future. Additionally, one in four Canadians with diabetes reported not following their treatment plan due to cost. Providing first-dollar coverage for diabetes medications will help improve the health of 3.7 million Canadians with diabetes and reduce the risk of serious life-changing health complications such as blindness or amputations.
  • A National School Food Program would improve dietary quality and reduce health inequities. Currently one in four children in Canada, experience food insecurity. While this program would primarily support children, there is also a gendered impact for parents, as women typically invest more time and money preparing food for school. It is estimated that a program covering breakfast and lunch would save participating families up to $800 per year, with lower-income families seeing proportionally greater benefits.
  • The Local Food Infrastructure Fund would benefit equity-deserving populations, particularly Indigenous people, Black communities, and women led one-parent households, by supporting community-based organizations to invest in local food infrastructure to enhance access to nutritious and culturally appropriate food. Nearly 43 per cent of women lone-parent households and one in four children under 18 are food insecure. Over 39 per cent of Black households and 33 per cent of off-reserve Indigenous population report food insecurity.
  • The Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program would provide Indigenous communities with access to safe shellfish harvesting for food, social, and ceremonial purposes. Inuit youth and adults experience the greatest food insecurity among all Canadians (about 57 per cent of Inuit youth and 45 per cent of Inuit adults).
  • Launching the Canada Disability Benefit would improve the quality of life for working-age persons with disabilities, who are more likely to face multiple and compounding barriers. About 60 per cent of persons with disabilities between the ages of 25 and 64 are employed, compared with about 80 per cent for those age 25 to 64 without a disability. Canadians aged 18-64 with disabilities experience poverty at about twice the rate of Canadians aged 18-64 without disabilities (23 per cent vs. 12 per cent).
  • Establishing a Child Care Expansion Loan Program would increase the availability of not-for-profit and public child care spaces across Canada. The program will offer $1 billion in low-cost loans and $60 million in non-repayable contributions to not-for-profit child care providers for the construction and renovation of child care centres. This initiative is not just about ensuring the spaces needed, it is also about ensuring that these spaces support the diverse needs of Canadian families, including those of vulnerable and underrepresented communities.
  • Cracking Down on Junk Fees, would help strengthen consumer protections for Canadians and better ensure fair and transparent pricing within the marketplace. This will help ensure that all Canadians, particularly those who are disproportionately impacted like low-income Canadians, are not adversely impacted by unfair fees.
  • Cheaper Internet, Home Phone and Cell Phone Plans, through the removal of extra switching fees, are expected to benefit all Canadians and in particular low-income Canadians. Certain populations are more likely experience lower incomes, such as Indigenous people (12.3 per cent) compared to the non-Indigenous population (7.2 per cent), newcomers (8.1 per cent) compared to those born in Canada (6.7 per cent), and persons with disabilities (10.6 per cent) compared to persons without disabilities (5.7 per cent).

Good Jobs and Meaningful Opportunities for Everyone

Economic opportunities for young people ensure that Canadians and Canada reach their full potential. Access to economic opportunities allows Canadians – no matter their background –to build a life that works for them. This looks like the ability to own a home or afford rent, have a family, invest in meaningful experiences, save for their futures, or support their parents. In the long-term, this creates flourishing communities.

Canada must support young people to get the skills they need to reach their and Canada's full potential. This is especially true for those seeking careers as skilled trade workers, who are pivotal to the essential sectors such as infrastructure, manufacturing, and increasingly the low-carbon economy. Despite the increasing need for skilled tradespeople, the overall certification rate has declined over time, with the number of certificates awarded to new apprentices growing at a slower pace than the number of new registrations in apprenticeship programs.

To unlock pathways for more Canadians, especially younger people, to engage in well-paying and diversified employment and educational opportunities, Budget 2024 proposes strategic investments, which include:

  • More Jobs for young Canadians through the Jobs and Skills Training for Gen Z, which would deliver a range of activities that help youth (aged 15 to 30) overcome barriers to employment. Youth who face barriers often include youth who are Indigenous; Black and racialized, 2SLGBTQI+, persons with disabilities, early leavers from high school, low income, those in precarious housing, and living in rural, remote, Northern or fly-in communities.
  • More Skilled Trades Workers Building Homes, reinforces the government's commitment to particularly support younger people gain valuable work experiences and secure good-paying jobs. The average completion rate for men in the top 15 largest apprenticeship programs in Canada was 47 per cent in 2021, but much lower for women, at 34 per cent. In Budget 2024, the government proposes to provide funding for the Canadian Apprenticeship Strategy to the Skilled Trades Awareness and Readiness (STAR) program to encourage high school students to enter the skilled trades and includes a focus on those who face barriers such as equity-deserving groups, and funding for the Apprenticeship Service to help create placements with SMEs for apprentices. The Apprenticeship Service offers additional financial support to SMEs that hire women and apprentices from other equity deserving groups.
  • Empowering Young Entrepreneurs, would target young entrepreneurs and aspiring business owners aged 18-39, including from various equity-deserving groups, such as entrepreneurs from official language minority communities and rural and remote communities, as well as women, Black, Indigenous, and newcomer entrepreneurs.
  • More Rent Supports for Students would benefit students, especially those with dependents. As of 2022-23, housing costs (whether in student residence or an apartment off-campus) accounted for the biggest draw on Registered Education Savings Plans. Canadians aged 15-24 not living with a parent spend, on average, 23 percent of their income on housing, compared to 16 percent across all age groups.
  • Helping People Return to School is targeted at adult learners, so that they get the support they need to succeed in the workforce and manage the financial and time pressures of pursuing higher education, while still raising families. Women are disproportionately represented (60 per cent) amongst those who have historically taken up these supports.
  • Investing in Homegrown Research Talent, is targeted at postsecondary student researchers, so they can learn, grow, and enter a fulfilling career. These researchers are typically younger adults. Of award recipients of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, those who identify as women comprise 63 per cent, 43 per cent, and 24 per cent respectively.
  • Strengthening Canada's AI Advantage, which is targeting all Canadians by supporting an AI regulatory and global leadership regime as well as new AI initiatives meant to ensure Canada can continue to be a world leader in AI research, talent and commercialization.

The Gender Results Framework

In 2018 the Government introduced the Gender Results Framework, to complement the Canadian Gender Budgeting Act. The Gender Results Framework represents the Government of Canada's vision for gender equality. Under this framework, the federal government has identified six key areas (see Figure 1) where change is required to advance gender equality. The framework is designed as a whole-of government tool to track how Canada is doing to achieve gender equality objectives. It is also aligned with the Government of Canada's policy of Gender-based Analysis Plus, ensuring that gender is considered in addition and in relation to other intersecting identity factors including age, disability, education, ethnicity, race, geography, sex, religion, economic status, and language.

Figure 1
Gender Equality Goals for Canada
Figure 2: Gender Equality Goals for Canada

The Gender Results Framework is aligned with the Government of Canada's policy of GBA Plus, ensuring that gender is considered in addition and in relation to other intersecting identity factors, including age, disability, education, ethnicity, race, geography, sex, religion, economic status, and language.

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Gender equality goals for Canada

Education and Skills Development

Equal opportunities and diversified paths in education and skills development

Economic Participation and Prosperity

Equal and full participation in the economy

Leadership and Democratic Participation

Gender equality in leadership roles and at all levels of decision-making

Gender-Based Violence and Access to Justice

Eliminating gender-based violence and harassment, and promoting security of the person and access to justice

Poverty Reduction, Health and Well-Being

Reduced poverty and improved health outcomes

Gender Equality Around the World

Promoting gender equality to build a more peaceful, inclusive, rules-based and prosperous world

Note on Methodology

As with previous budgets, this Statement uses indicator dashboards for the six pillars of the Gender Results Framework, to track progress towards equality across gender and intersecting identity factors. Building on the Budget 2021 investments in disaggregated data, the Statement puts an emphasis on an intersectional approach to reporting data. It recognizes that that no person is defined by a single identity and that overlapping identity factors contribute to varying outcomes across groups.

The terminology used in this Statement is partially dictated by the data collection process, which, until recently, continued to reflect binary norms around gender and did not consider differences between sex at birth and gender identity. Where the data is available, these differences will be reflected in the indicator dashboards.

However, it is not always possible to report on the indicators for each group individually, due to concerns around small population sizes and protecting privacy. This is the case for some statistics disaggregated by sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or bisexual) or by non-binary gender identity.

In terms of time periods reflected in the dashboards, this varies, as not all Statistics Canada surveys are conducted across a consistent time series. Where possible, efforts have been made to reflect the most recently available data. It should also be noted that due to the potential differences in methodology and context across some surveys, small differences across groups should be viewed with caution.

Education and Skills Development

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Education and Skills Development
Goal: Equal opportunities and diversified paths in education and skills development

Equal access to quality education and skills training is the cornerstone of a just and thriving society.

Educational attainment

University at bachelor's degree level or above (highest education, 25-54 years, %, 2016, 2021)*
University at bachelor's degree level or above (highest education, 25-54 years, %, 2016, 2021)*
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  2016 2021
Men+ 27.8 32
Women+ 34.8 41
Men+ 8.3 9.4
Women+ 14.4 17.7
Recent immigrant
Men+ 50.7 56.3
Women+ 52.1 59.1
Racialized group
Men+ 44 48.4
Women+ 45.3 52.1
Has a disability
Men+ 17.5 24.4
Women+ 25 32.4

Field of study

Share of bachelor's degree students who are women (%, 2015/2016 and 2021/2022)
Share of bachelor's degree students who are women (%, 2015/2016 and 2021/2022)
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2021 / 2022 2015 / 2016
Total all fields 57.3 57
Engineering and engineering technology 23.8 20.2
Mathematics and computer and information sciences 27 27.2
Science and science technology 61 56.8
Business and administration 48.4 49.7
Arts and humanities 63.7 62.7
Trades, services, natural resources and conservation 64 63.6
Legal professions and studies 68.6 59.9
Social and behavioural sciences 69.9 67.8
Education and teaching 75.1 76.7
Health care 83.9 83.8


Share with apprenticeship or trade as highest education (25-54 years, %, 2021)*
  Men+ Women+
Total 13 6
Indigenous 16 6
Racialized group 5 4
Has a disability 13 7
Recent immigrant 5 3
Registered apprentice certificates granted to women (2016, 2022)
  Share granted to women (%)
Total all trades 11
Early childhood
educators and assistants
Hairstylists and estheticians 91
Community and social service workers 90
Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters 2
Heavy duty equipment mechanics 2
Refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics 2
Registered apprentice certificates granted to women (2016, 2022)
Distribution among women (%)
Distribution among women (%)
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2022 2016
Electricians 7.5 3.7
Interior finishing 5.3 1.9
Carpenters 3.3 0.9
Community and social service 3.5 6.7
Food service 10.4 14.9
Hairstylists and estheticians 32.1 41.7

High school mathematics, reading and science

Share aged 15 at proficiency level 2 or above (minimum level of proficiency students should acquire by end of secondary education, % 2006-2022)
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Boys Girls
2006 90 88
2009 90 88
2012 87 86
2015 86 86
2018 84 84
2022 80 79
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Boys Girls
2006 86 93
2009 86 94
2012 83 93
2015 86 93
2018 82 91
2022 79 85
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Boys Girls
2006 89 90
2009 91 91
2012 88 91
2015 88 91
2018 85 88
2022 84 86

Note: * As the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender protects confidentiality. People in the category "non-binary persons" are distributed into the other two-gender categories and denoted by the "+" symbol. Recent immigrants are persons who landed in Canada within the last 10 years.

Sources: Census of Population, Canadian Survey on Disability, Registered Apprenticeship Information System, Postsecondary Student Information System, Programme for International Student Assessment.

Although women may be underrepresented in certain educational fields, substantial progress has been made in overall educational attainment for women, Indigenous people, recent immigrants, racialized people and persons with a disability.

  • With each successive generation of Canadians, both men and women have attained a higher level of education, with women more likely than men to attain a bachelor's degree or above.
  • While women remain less likely than men to enroll in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), enrolment in these fields accounted for almost two-thirds of the increase in women's enrolment in bachelor degree programs between 2015-16 and 2021-22.
  • A higher proportion of Black and racialized people and recent immigrants attain a bachelor's degree or above, but with women outperforming men to a lesser extent than observed in the total population within these groups. However, persons with a disability and Indigenous people are less likely to attain a bachelor's degree, with men less likely to attain a degree compared to women.
  • Women continue to be underrepresented among new apprenticeship certificate holders, and the gap has slightly worsened in recent years with women's share decreasing from 13 per cent to 11 per cent since 2016. Nevertheless, there has been a shift in the composition of certificates granted to women away from trades historically dominated by women and towards those dominated by men, including some well-paying construction trades, such as carpenters, interior finishers, and electricians.
  • With respect to basic education, the vast majority of students in Canada continue to graduate from high school, with 87 per cent of boys and 92 per cent of girls completing high school within five years of starting grade 10. International test scores in mathematics, reading, and science show that Canadian 15-year-old boys and girls continue to compare favourably with their counterparts from other countries, although there has been a general decline in proficiency, consistent with a global trend. Overall, performance among girls and boys is comparable; however, boys continue to perform worse in reading.

Budget 2024 includes substantial investments in education including student financial assistance and training programs for young people, including women, Black and racialized people, and Indigenous people. Ensuring equal access to education and training opportunities fosters individual empowerment, economic prosperity, and global competitiveness. By breaking down discriminatory barriers and empowering individuals to shape their own paths to success, advancing equality of opportunities benefits not only individuals in historically disadvantaged groups, but all Canadians.

Actions to Support Education and Skills Development

Previous Budget Actions

  • As of March 31, 2023, CanCode 3.0 has supported 2,756,271 training opportunities to K-12 students. As well, the program has surpassed targets for providing training and professional development opportunities to teachers (target 120,000, reached 134,615), and for reaching specific groups such as Indigenous youth (target 7 per cent, reached 7 per cent); youth with disabilities (target 1 per cent, reached 4 per cent); and youth located in rural, remote, and Northern communities (target 17 per cent, reached 23 per cent).
  • Funding for the Youth Employment and Skills Strategy in Budget 2021 supported 141,262 youth job placements and skills training opportunities in 2022-23, while support for the Student Work Placement Program supported 83,073 work-integrated learning opportunities for post-secondary students in their field of study in 2021-22.
  • Through its various program streams, Mitacs supported a total of 21,431 work-integrated learning placements in 2022–23, hosting 9,800 students in both the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors.

Budget 2024 Actions*

  • Additional funding for Coding Skills for Kids will support coding and digital skills training opportunities for kids in grades K-12.
  • Investing in Homegrown Research Talent ensures the best possible educational opportunities in science for post-secondary students and fellows and will help further develop the skills-based workforce.
  • Additional funding for First Nations K-12 Education and First Nations Post-Secondary Education will support First Nations elementary and secondary students on-reserve, and First Nations post-secondary students seeking to obtain a credential.
  • Continued funding for the Jobs and Skills Training will support employment and skills development opportunities for young people, particularly those facing barriers to employment.
  • Expanding the Helping Students Gain Work Experience will provide quality work-integrated learning opportunities, such as co-ops, to post-secondary students.
  • Increases to Canada Student Grants and Loans will stabilize access to post-secondary education for low- and middle-income families.
  • Making it Easier to Save for Your Child's Education will facilitate access to education savings to help children from low-income families pursue post-secondary education.
Economic Participation and Prosperity

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Economic Participation and Prosperity
Goal: Equal and full participation in the economy

An economy that advances equal and meaningful opportunities for participation creates strong economic growth for all Canadians.

Labour force

Labour force participation rate, (25-54 years %, 2016 and 2023)*
Labour force participation rate, (25-54 years %, 2016 and 2023)*
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2016 2023
Men 90.9 91.9
Women 82.1 85.4
Men 81.4 83.3
Women 73.4 77.7
Recent immigrant
Men 90.3 93.2
Women 70 78.3
Racialized group
Men 88.6 92
Women 76.5 81.5
Has a disability
Men+ 75.3 77.8
Women+ 72 75.3

Earnings and employment

Gender gap in median income and wages (25-54 years, %, 1976-2023)
Gender gap in median income and wages (25-54 years, %, 1976-2023)
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Median income (excluding zeros) Median hourly wage rate
Annual employment income Hourly wages, full-time
1976 57
1977 54
1978 53
1979 52
1980 52
1981 51
1982 50
1983 48
1984 48
1985 47
1986 47
1987 46
1988 47
1989 43
1990 44
1991 42
1992 40
1993 38
1994 40
1995 38
1996 37
1997 38 18
1998 36 20
1999 38 18
2000 39 20
2001 38 18
2002 37 18
2003 37 16
2004 36 15
2005 35 15
2006 32 16
2007 32 16
2008 33 15
2009 30 16
2010 32 16
2011 32 14
2012 33 13
2013 29 14
2014 29 13
2015 32 13
2016 30 14
2017 29 14
2018 28 13
2019 27 14
2020 26 12
2021 28 12
2022 14
2023 12
Proportion in low-wage work (25-54 years, %, 1997-2023)**
Proportion in low-wage work (25-54 years, %, 1997-2023)**
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Men Women
1997 17 32
1998 18 33
1999 17 32
2000 16 32
2001 15 30
2002 17 32
2003 16 31
2004 17 30
2005 17 30
2006 16 29
2007 17 29
2008 16 29
2009 18 30
2010 18 29
2011 18 29
2012 19 30
2013 18 30
2014 18 28
2015 19 29
2016 19 29
2017 18 28
2018 17 26
2019 18 27
2020 17 25
2021 18 26
2022 17 27
2023 17 26
Proportion in low-wage work (25-54 years, %, 2023)**
Proportion in low-wage work (25-54 years, %, 2023)**
Text version
Men Women
Total 17.5 26
Indigenous 21.4 29.8

25.2 40.9
Immigrant 20.4 34.2
Racialized group 24.5 35.1

Type and hours of work

Full-time employment (25-54 years, %, 2015-2023)
Full-time employment (25-54 years, %, 2015-2023)
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Men Women
1976 98.5 77.6
1977 98.3 77
1978 98.3 77.1
1979 98.3 76.7
1980 98.1 76.1
1981 97.9 75.9
1982 97.4 75.7
1983 96.9 75.2
1984 96.8 76.3
1985 96.9 75.6
1986 96.9 76.4
1987 97 77.1
1988 97.2 76.9
1989 97.1 78.1
1990 96.9 78
1991 96.2 77.3
1992 95.9 77.2
1993 95.3 76.9
1994 95.5 77.2
1995 95.4 77.4
1996 95.2 76.9
1997 95.2 76.4
1998 95.2 77.2
1999 95.6 77.9
2000 95.7 78.7
2001 95.4 78.9
2002 95.2 78.7
2003 95.2 78.8
2004 95.4 79.4
2005 95.2 79.9
2006 95.3 80.7
2007 95.4 81
2008 95.1 80.9
2009 94.3 80.4
2010 94.3 80.3
2011 94.2 80.5
2012 94.5 80.8
2013 94.4 81
2014 94.3 81
2015 94.4 81.3
2016 94 81.4
2017 94 81.7
2018 94.4 81.9
2019 94.1 82.6
2020 94.1 83.3
2021 93.8 83.5
2022 94.7 84.1
2023 94.4 84.6
Involuntary part-time employment (25-54 years, %, 2015-2023)
Involuntary part-time employment (25-54 years, %, 2015-2023)
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Year Men Women
1997 2.82 8.05
1998 2.67 7.29
1999 2.41 6.54
2000 2.2 6.11
2001 2.34 6.19
2002 2.58 6.58
2003 2.52 6.82
2004 2.27 6.57
2005 2.25 6.13
2006 2.25 5.61
2007 2.15 5.17
2008 2.25 5.38
2009 3.01 6.46
2010 3.02 6.81
2011 2.88 6.49
2012 2.66 6.58
2013 2.74 6.47
2014 2.9 6.58
2015 2.68 6.28
2016 2.79 5.83
2017 2.71 5.64
2018 2.38 5.01
2019 2.17 4.26
2020 2.58 4.55
2021 2.48 4.17
2022 1.71 3.03
2023 1.76 2.89
Unpaid hours per day caring for a child or senior (25-54 years, 2021)*
Unpaid hours per day caring for a child or senior (25-54 years, 2021)*
Text version
Men+ Women+ Men+ Women+
Total 15.9 27 2.3 3.9
Racialized group 16 27 2.3 3.9
Immigrant 15 30 2.1 4.3
Has a disability 12.5 23 1.8 3.3
Career choice
  Share of women in selected occupations (%, 2023)
Nursing and health professionals 90
Legal, social, community and education services 89
Health services support 84
Trades helpers, construction labourers 13
General trades 9
Technical trades, transportation officers/controllers 5
Child care costs
Consumer Price Index for child care services (Index, 2019=100, 2005-2023)
Consumer Price Index for child care services (Index, 2019=100, 2005-2023)
Text version
Month Consumer Price Index
Jan-2005 61
Feb-2005 61.7
Mar-2005 61.7
Apr-2005 61.8
May-2005 61.8
Jun-2005 61.8
Jul-2005 61.8
Aug-2005 61.8
Sep-2005 61.8
Oct-2005 62.1
Nov-2005 62.1
Dec-2005 62.1
Jan-2006 62.1
Feb-2006 63.3
Mar-2006 63.3
Apr-2006 63.5
May-2006 63.5
Jun-2006 63.5
Jul-2006 63.6
Aug-2006 63.7
Sep-2006 64.2
Oct-2006 64.5
Nov-2006 64.5
Dec-2006 64.5
Jan-2007 64.5
Feb-2007 65.3
Mar-2007 65.3
Apr-2007 66.1
May-2007 66.1
Jun-2007 66.1
Jul-2007 66.1
Aug-2007 66.1
Sep-2007 67.6
Oct-2007 69.5
Nov-2007 69.5
Dec-2007 69.5
Jan-2008 69.5
Feb-2008 70.1
Mar-2008 70.1
Apr-2008 70.2
May-2008 70.2
Jun-2008 70.2
Jul-2008 70.2
Aug-2008 70.2
Sep-2008 72
Oct-2008 72.2
Nov-2008 72.2
Dec-2008 72.2
Jan-2009 72.2
Feb-2009 73
Mar-2009 73
Apr-2009 73.1
May-2009 73.1
Jun-2009 73.1
Jul-2009 73.1
Aug-2009 73.1
Sep-2009 73.7
Oct-2009 75.3
Nov-2009 75.3
Dec-2009 75.3
Jan-2010 75.3
Feb-2010 76.4
Mar-2010 76.4
Apr-2010 76.7
May-2010 76.7
Jun-2010 76.7
Jul-2010 76.7
Aug-2010 76.7
Sep-2010 78.6
Oct-2010 78.7
Nov-2010 78.7
Dec-2010 78.7
Jan-2011 78.7
Feb-2011 79.7
Mar-2011 79.7
Apr-2011 79.7
May-2011 80
Jun-2011 80
Jul-2011 80
Aug-2011 80
Sep-2011 81.1
Oct-2011 81.2
Nov-2011 81.5
Dec-2011 81.5
Jan-2012 81.5
Feb-2012 82.4
Mar-2012 82.4
Apr-2012 82.4
May-2012 82.9
Jun-2012 82.9
Jul-2012 82.9
Aug-2012 82.9
Sep-2012 83.9
Oct-2012 83.9
Nov-2012 83.9
Dec-2012 83.9
Jan-2013 83.9
Feb-2013 84.8
Mar-2013 84.8
Apr-2013 84.8
May-2013 84.9
Jun-2013 84.9
Jul-2013 85
Aug-2013 85
Sep-2013 85.4
Oct-2013 85.2
Nov-2013 85.2
Dec-2013 85.2
Jan-2014 85.2
Feb-2014 85.8
Mar-2014 85.8
Apr-2014 85.8
May-2014 85.9
Jun-2014 86.4
Jul-2014 86.4
Aug-2014 86.4
Sep-2014 86.9
Oct-2014 88.2
Nov-2014 88.2
Dec-2014 88.2
Jan-2015 88.2
Feb-2015 89
Mar-2015 89
Apr-2015 89
May-2015 89.1
Jun-2015 89.1
Jul-2015 89.1
Aug-2015 89.1
Sep-2015 89.9
Oct-2015 90
Nov-2015 90
Dec-2015 90
Jan-2016 90
Feb-2016 91.4
Mar-2016 91.4
Apr-2016 91.4
May-2016 91.5
Jun-2016 91.5
Jul-2016 91.5
Aug-2016 91.5
Sep-2016 91.9
Oct-2016 92.2
Nov-2016 92.2
Dec-2016 92.2
Jan-2017 92.2
Feb-2017 93
Mar-2017 93
Apr-2017 93.1
May-2017 93.1
Jun-2017 93.1
Jul-2017 93.1
Aug-2017 93.1
Sep-2017 94.2
Oct-2017 94.6
Nov-2017 94.6
Dec-2017 94.6
Jan-2018 96.1
Feb-2018 96.7
Mar-2018 96.7
Apr-2018 96.7
May-2018 96.7
Jun-2018 96.7
Jul-2018 96.7
Aug-2018 96.7
Sep-2018 98.2
Oct-2018 98.4
Nov-2018 98.4
Dec-2018 98.4
Jan-2019 98.4
Feb-2019 99.8
Mar-2019 99.8
Apr-2019 99.8
May-2019 99.8
Jun-2019 100.1
Jul-2019 100.1
Aug-2019 100.1
Sep-2019 100.6
Oct-2019 100.6
Nov-2019 100.6
Dec-2019 100.6
Jan-2020 100.6
Feb-2020 101.5
Mar-2020 101.5
Apr-2020 101.5
May-2020 101.7
Jun-2020 101.8
Jul-2020 101.8
Aug-2020 101.8
Sep-2020 103
Oct-2020 103.3
Nov-2020 103.3
Dec-2020 103.3
Jan-2021 103.3
Feb-2021 105.2
Mar-2021 105.2
Apr-2021 105.2
May-2021 105.3
Jun-2021 105.4
Jul-2021 105.4
Aug-2021 105.4
Sep-2021 105.9
Oct-2021 106
Nov-2021 106
Dec-2021 106
Jan-2022 106.4
Feb-2022 106.8
Mar-2022 106.8
Apr-2022 98.9
May-2022 99
Jun-2022 97.4
Jul-2022 97.4
Aug-2022 97.4
Sep-2022 97.3
Oct-2022 97.7
Nov-2022 97.7
Dec-2022 93.1
Jan-2023 88.7
Feb-2023 77.4
Mar-2023 77.4
Apr-2023 75.5
May-2023 75.7
Jun-2023 75.9
Jul-2023 75.9
Aug-2023 76.1
Sep-2023 75.3
Oct-2023 75.9
Nov-2023 75.9
Dec-2023 75.9

Note: * As the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender protects confidentiality. People in the category "non-binary persons" are distributed into the other two-gender categories and denoted by the "+" symbol. Labour force participation rates for "Has a disability" are 2017 and 2022. For racialized groups, 2016 value is from Census and 2023 value is from Labour Force Survey. Recent immigrants are persons who landed in Canada within the last 10 years.** Low-wage work is defined as two-thirds of the median hourly wage of full-time permanent employees aged 25-54 years.

Sources: Labour Force Survey, Census of Population, Canadian Survey on Disability, Canadian Income Survey, Canadian Social Survey, Consumer Price Index (child care services).

Strong labour market conditions (including more flexibility in work arrangements and hybrid work) and reduced child care costs have fostered greater participation. Canadian women are participating in the labour market at a higher rate than at any time in history, as gender-based inequalities in economic outcomes continue to decline. Despite this progress, work remains to secure full and equal participation for women and other underrepresented groups.

  • There have been substantial increases in labour market participation among Indigenous women and recent immigrant women in recent years. In fact, improvements in labour market performance of immigrants of both genders have exceeded that of the total population. Nonetheless, women, particularly those who are Indigenous, recent immigrants, racialized, or have a disability, continue to participate in the labour market at lower rates than men.
  • Gender gaps in earnings have narrowed over the past few decades, with the gap in annual earnings reduced to 28 per cent (12 per cent for full-time hourly wages). However, women still constitute a disproportionate share of low-wage workers. Persons who are Indigenous, racialized or an immigrant, especially women who are recent immigrants, are also more likely to work in low-wage jobs.
  • Labour market attachment for women has continued to see significant improvement. The share of women involuntarily working part-time because full-time employment could not be secured has continued to decline, although there remains a 9-percentage point gap in full-time employment rates between women and men.
  • Women continue to shoulder a greater share of unpaid household responsibilities, dedicating 70 per cent more hours per week than men to child care duties or duties related to the care of seniors. This division of household responsibilities may contribute to women participating less in the labour force on a full-time basis.
  • Child care is becoming more affordable, with the average cost now 76 per cent of the 2019 level. This trend is expected to continue as provinces work towards fulfilling commitments to achieve $10-per-day child care by the end of 2025-26. Reflecting, in part, recent government investments in early learning and child care, since the summer of 2020, the participation rate for women with children under the age of six has increased by three percentage points – a pace more than double that of the prior three years.

In this context, the government continues to make concerted efforts to ensure that every Canadian family has access to affordable, high-quality child care so that women can fully participate in the economy and to support economic activity in Indigenous communities.

Ensuring that every person has the opportunity and support to fully participate in the economy will not only raise the incomes of Canadian families but also contribute to the overall prosperity of the country. This means enabling opportunities for women in particular to pursue their careers at the same time as raising their families and supporting enterprising young Canadians from marginalized backgrounds to realize their dreams.

Actions to Support Economic Participation and Prosperity

Previous Budget Actions

  • As of April 1, 2024, eight provinces and territories will be providing regulated child care for an average of just $10-a-day or less, and all other provinces remain on track to deliver $10-a-day child care by March 2026.
  • In the 2023 Fall Economic Statement, the government proposed An Act to amend the Criminal Code and the Canada Labour Code, to create a new paid leave for workers in federally regulated sectors who experience a pregnancy loss.
  • From fiscal years 2018-19 to 2022-23, the Regional Economic Growth through Innovation program supported a total of 1,016 projects undertaken by organizations that are led, owned, or majority-owned by a representative of an underrepresented group.
  • In February 2023, Palette Skills was announced as the national lead recipient for the Upskilling for Industry Initiative following an open call for applications. The organization has since launched its "Upskill Canada" Project with partners located across the country. In November 2023, Palette Skills launched its first wave of 17 industry-driven programs totaling $71 million to upskill more than 5,500 mid-career workers.

Budget 2024 Actions*

  • Boosting Indigenous Economic Opportunity will enable Indigenous entrepreneurs and businesses to access the capital they need to start and expand their businesses. As well, the Indigenous Tourism Association of Canada and the Strategic Partnerships Initiative's Clean Energy programs will promote the Indigenous tourism industry and help ensure that Indigenous communities are able advance green energy projects.
  • The Indigenous Loan Guarantee Program will support Indigenous communities of any distinction (First Nation, Inuit, Métis) looking to acquire equity in major natural resources and energy projects in their territories, thereby sustaining sources of revenue and creating jobs in Indigenous communities.
  • More Affordable Child Care will increase the number of child care spaces across Canada, by offering low-cost loans and non-repayable contributions to not-for-profit and public child care providers for the construction and renovation of child care centres.
  • Empowering Young Entrepreneurs will help young entrepreneurs and aspiring business owners aged 18-39, including those from various equity-deserving groups, launch and grow their business.
Leadership and Democratic Participation

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Leadership and Democratic Participation
Goal: Gender equality in leadership roles and at all levels of decision-making

Ensuring representation and inclusivity is not just a matter of equity; it is a cornerstone for fostering innovation, cooperation, and improved outcomes for all Canadians.

Economic leadership

Women in leadership positions (%)
Women in leadership positions (%)
Text version
Board members on publicly traded companies    
2020 17
2022 19
Senior management    
2016 27
2021 30
SMEs that are majority-owned by women    
2017 16
2020 17
Senior managers %, 2016 and 2021)*
Senior managers %, 2016 and 2021)*
Text version
Population (15+) 2016 2021
Women+ 51 27 30
Immigrant 26 20 21
Indigenous 4 2 2
Racialized group 25 12 14

Political leadership

Federal political representation (%, 2021-2023)
Federal political representation (%, 2021-2023)
Text version
MPs Ministers Population (15+)
Women 31 50 51
Indigenous 3 3 4
Racialized group 16 26 25
Immigrant 13 24 26
2SLGBTQI+ 2 8 4
Total 100 100 100
Federal political representatives who are women (%, 1919-2024)
Federal political representatives who are women (%, 1919-2024)
Text version
MPs (30%) Ministers (50%) Senators (56 %)
1st 0 0 0
2nd 0 0 0
3rd 0 0 0
4th 0 0 0
5th 0 0 0
6th 0 0 0
7th 0 0 0
8th 0 0 0
9th 0 0 0
10th 0 0 0
11th 0 0 0
12th 0 0 0
1919 0 0 0
14th 0 0 0
15th 0 0 0
16th 0 0 1
17th 0 0 2
18th 1 0 2
19th 0 0 2
20th 0 0 2
21st 0 0 4
22nd 2 0 6
23rd 1 5 5
24th 1 3 7
25th 2 5 6
26th 2 3 5
27th 2 3 5
28th 0 0 8
29th 2 0 8
30th 3 5 8
31st 4 5 11
32nd 5 5 11
33rd 10 16 14
34th 13 16 15
35th 18 21 22
36th 21 26 29
37th 21 24 34
38th 21 23 35
39th 21 21 35
40th 22 28 33
41st 25 26 36
42nd 26 48 45
43rd 29 47 48
2024 30 49 50
Legislators (%, 2016 and 2021)
Legislators (%, 2016 and 2021)
Text version
Population (15+) 2016 2021
Women+ 51 35 43
Immigrant 26 8 9
Racialized group 25 4 7

Judicial representation

Federal judges who are women (%, 2017, 2021 and 2023)**
Federal judges who are women (%, 2017, 2021 and 2023)**
Text version
2017 2021 2023
Total, all courts 38.4 43.8 46.7
Supreme Court of Canada 44.4 33.3 50
Federal Court of Appeal 31.3 37.5 43.8
Federal Court 27.5 31.1 46.5
Tax Court of Canada 17.4 27.3 31.8
Provincial Superior Courts 39.2 44.5 46.8
Territorial Superior Courts 50 69.2 69.2
Provincial & Territorial Superior Courts 39.3 44.8 47
Federal judicial appointments (%, 2016-2023)
Federal judicial appointments (%, 2016-2023)
Text version
Population (35+) Federal judicial appointments
Women 51 55
Indigenous 4 3
Racialized group 21 12
Has a disability 26 1

Law enforcement

Police officers who are women by rank (%, 1986-2022)***
Police officers who are women by rank (%, 1986-2022)***
Text version
Commissioned police officers Non-commissioned officers Constables Total police officers
1986 0 0 5 4
1987 0 1 6 4
1988 0 1 7 5
1989 0 1 8 6
1990 0 1 9 6
1991 0 1 9 7
1992 1 2 10 8
1993 1 2 11 8
1994 1 2 12 9
1995 2 3 13 10
1996 2 3 13 10
1997 2 3 14 11
1998 2 4 16 12
1999 3 5 16 13
2000 3 5 17 14
2001 3 6 18 14
2002 4 7 19 15
2003 5 8 19 16
2004 5 9 20 16
2005 5 10 21 17
2006 6 11 21 18
2007 7 12 21 19
2008 8 13 21 19
2009 8 14 21 19
2010 9 15 21 19
2011 10 16 22 20
2012 10 16 22 20
2013 10 17 22 20
2014 11 18 22 21
2015 12 18 22 21
2016 13 18 23 21
2017 15 19 23 21
2018 15 19 23 22
2019 19 20 23 22
2021 18 20 24 22
2022 18 21 24 23
Police officers (%, 2022)
Police officers (%, 2022)
Text version
Population (15+) Police officers
Women 51 23
Indigenous 4 4
Racialized group 25 8

Note: * As the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender protects confidentiality. People in the category "non-binary persons" are distributed into the other two-gender categories and denoted by the "+" symbol. ** As of October 1, 2021, and October 1, 2023. *** Data is not available for 2020.

Sources: Census of Population, Library of Parliament, Police Administration Survey, Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs Canada, Policy Options, Department of Finance Canada internal analysis.

Over time, women have made notable progress in securing leadership positions across various sectors such as the justice system, law enforcement, government, and senior management. Despite these advances, there is still work to be done to create a system that truly reflects our societal makeup, ensuring that women and equity-deserving groups have a seat at the table at all levels of decision-making.

  • The power gap continues to exist in business sector leadership. While there has been an increase in the representation of women on boards at publicly traded companies, in senior management positions, and in entrepreneurship, these shares all remain below one-third.
  • Appointed Members of the Cabinet and Senators have achieved and maintained gender parity. Despite women's representation in the House of Commons rising to 30 per cent in 2024, the persistent gap highlights potential systemic barriers that may deter women from engaging in federal politics. At 43 per cent as of 2021, this gap is much smaller for all legislators in Canada. Likewise, immigrants and Black and racialized people continue to be underrepresented in politics, signaling a broader need for inclusivity and diversity in our political institutions.
  • Following its most recent appointments in 2022 and 2023, Canada reached a significant milestone with its first majority-women Supreme Court, consisting of five judges who are women and four who are men. Across all federal courts, the representation of women judges stood at 47 per cent in 2024.
  • There are significant diversity gaps in policing. While Black and racialized people account for 25 per cent of the population, they account for only 8 per cent of police officers. Similarly, women accounted for only 23 per cent of police officers in 2022, only a slight increase compared to recent years. Ensuring greater diversity and police services that reflect the demographics of the communities they serve helps to improve communication, cultural understanding, and the delivery of equitable justice.

The government remains committed to promoting diversity in leadership positions by taking such actions as establishing Canada's first gender-balanced cabinet, increasing the representation of women in the federal judiciary, and expanding the application of diversity disclosures.

The government acknowledges the crucial role of women in leadership for advancing gender justice in Canada, with the goal of creating a more inclusive and equitable society. Likewise, active involvement of equity-deserving groups in economic, political, and judicial spheres is vital to ensure that the diverse perspectives and experiences of all Canadians are considered at every stage of the decision-making process.

Actions to Support Leadership and Democratic Participation

Previous Budget Actions

  • As of July 4, 2023, the remaining two amendments of the Public Service Employment Act came into force, which require departments and agencies subject to the Act to evaluate assessment methods used in hiring processes for biases and barriers that disadvantage people belonging to equity-seeking groups, and to take steps to remove or mitigate these.
  • On February 21, 2024, the government announced its first initiatives as part of the Action Plan for Black Public Servants, including enhancement to mental health supports for Black public servants, and dedicated programming to support the career development and advancement of Black public servants.
  • As of February 2024, the government's investment of nearly $100 million for the Black Entrepreneurship Program Ecosystem Fund (a part of the Black Entrepreneurship Program) has supported 43 Black-led not-for-profit organizations to develop new services or expand those already offered, such as mentorship, networking, financial planning, and business training for Black entrepreneurs.
  • As of February 2024, the government has committed $140 million of its Budget 2021 allocation to support women entrepreneurs as part of Women Entrepreneurship Strategy (WES). This includes $55 million to five loan administrators for the Women Entrepreneurship Loan Fund; $15 million to five not-for-profits delivering the WES Inclusive Women Venture Capital Initiative; $65 million to 24 not-for-profits delivering projects through the WES Ecosystem Fund; and $5 million to Toronto Metropolitan University for the Women Entrepreneurship Knowledge Hub.

Budget 2024 Actions*

  • Renewed investments in Indigenous Governance and Capacity programs will support First Nation governments and tribal councils in designing and delivering critical programs and services to their members. As well, continued support to advance the new fiscal relationship will help First Nation communities to tailor programs and services to the needs of specific groups.
  • More Judges for Faster Access to Justice helps improve access to justice for all Canadians and strengthens the public's confidence in the judicial system. New judges are selected through a superior courts judicial appointment process that aims to achieve a gender-balanced bench, reflecting the diversity of Canadian society.
  • Financial Sector Statutes Review would benefit underrepresented communities, including women, Indigenous people, persons with disabilities, and Black and racialized people, by encouraging diversity amongst executives in these institutions.
Gender-Based Violence and Access to Justice

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Gender-Based Violence and Access to Justice
Goal: Eliminating gender-based violence and harassment, and promoting security of the person and access to justice

Every Canadian deserves a life free from violence, regardless of their identity or circumstances.

Workplace harassment

Experience of inappropriate behaviours in the workplace (past 12 months, %, 2020)*
Experience of inappropriate behaviours in the workplace (past 12 months, %, 2020)*
Text version
Women Men
Inappropriate sexualized behaviours Total 25 17
Indigenous 25 20
Has a disability 35 25
Racialized group 19 11
Immigrant 16 9
Disciminatory behaviour Total 10 5
Indigenous 10 na
Has a disability 16 10
Racialized group 8 4
Immigrant 7 2
Sexual assault
Self-reported sexual assault (since age 15, %, 2018)
Self-reported sexual assault (since age 15, %, 2018)
Text version
Men Women
Total 8 30
Immigrant 6 20
Racialized group 6 19
Indigenous 12 43
Has a disability 13 39
LGBTQ2 25 50
Police reporting of crime
Reported sexual assaults deemed unfounded (%, 2017-2022)
Reported sexual assaults deemed unfounded (%, 2017-2022)
Text version
Level 1 Level 2, weapon or bodily harm Level 3, aggravated
2017 17 7 9
2018 13 5 9
2019 11 5 7
2020 10 4 5
2021 9 3 4
2022 8 3 4
Self-reported childhood abuse (%, 2018)
Self-reported childhood abuse (%, 2018)
Text version
Men Women
Total 26 28
Immigrant 27 25
Racialized group 26 24
First Nations 32 42
Métis 37 44
Inuit 17 24
Has a disability 36 38
LGBTQ2 41 44

Intimate partner violence (IPV)

Self-reported IPV (past 12 months, %, 2018)
Self-reported IPV (past 12 months, %, 2018)
Text version
Men Women
Total 11 12
Racialized group 12 9
Immigrant 11 10
First Nations 16 16
Métis 15 15
Inuit 18 12
LGBTQ2 21 20
Has a disability 15 16
Police-reported IPV (rate per 100,000, 2009-2022)
Police-reported IPV (rate per 100,000, 2009-2022)
Text version
Men Women
2009 138 554
2010 141 552
2011 134 522
2012 132 500
2013 126 469
2014 124 452
2015 127 463
2016 129 467
2017 130 475
2018 129 489
2019 142 517
2020 146 526
2021 149 541
2022 151 538


Homicide (rate per 100,000; 2014-2022)
Homicide (rate per 100,000; 2014-2022)
Text version
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Indigenous men 10,9 12,6 12,7 12,9 10,4 13,4 16,7 14,9 16,9
Indigenous women 3,6 4,9 3,4 4,1 4,6 4,7 4,3 4,4 5,1
Non-Indigenous men 1,7 1,9 2 2,1 2,3 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,6
Non-Indigenous women 0,7 0,8 0,7 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,8
Homicide victim's relationship to perpetrator (%, 2022)
Homicide victim's relationship to perpetrator (%, 2022)
Text version
Men Women
Stranger or unknown 31 10
Other relationship 51 19
Other family member 14 22
Intimate partner 4 49

Note: * Because of a small sample size, the estimate of the share of Indigenous men experiencing discriminatory behaviour in the workplace is considered too unreliable to publish.

Sources: Survey on Sexual Misconduct at Work, Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces, Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Homicide Survey.

Incidents of gender-based violence, encompassing acts ranging from harassment to homicide rooted in gender identity, gender expression, or perceived gender, persist in Canada. Disparities in violence rates are particularly evident among minority groups.

  • In 2020, women were twice as likely as men to encounter discriminatory behaviour in the workplace. Inappropriate sexualized behaviour in the workplace remains common with 25 per cent of women experiencing inappropriate sexualized behaviour and 17 per cent of men. Notably, both men and women with disabilities reported rates that well exceeded these averages.
  • In the Canadian Armed Forces, this trend is reflected at higher rates with 34 per cent of women experiencing sexualized or discriminatory behavior in the past twelve months in 2022, compared to 16 per cent of men.
  • In 2018, women were almost four times more likely than men to report experiencing sexual assault since the age of 15. The incidence of sexual assault was higher than average among LGB women, Indigenous women, and women with disabilities.
  • The adoption of policies, including trauma-informed training, civilian oversight of investigative procedures, and revised protocols concerning the determination of unfounded accusations, has proven effective. This is evidenced by the decline in the share of reported sexual assaults deemed unfounded by the police between 2017 and 2020.
  • In 2022, Indigenous men and women were almost seven times more likely to be victims of homicide than their non-Indigenous counterparts.
  • Women victims of homicide were 12 times more likely than men to have been killed by an intimate partner. In contrast, men were more likely to be murdered by an acquaintance, a stranger, or someone of criminal relation.
  • In 2019, one in four teens aged 12 to 17 reported experiencing cyberbullying in the previous year. Some young people are more vulnerable to cybervictimization, including Indigenous youth, sexually diverse and non-binary youth, youth with a disability, and girls and women.

Systemic inequalities and discrimination enable acts of gender-based violence and violence against other vulnerable individuals. In violating the dignity of the victim, gender-based violence creates barriers to full and equal participation and reinforces discriminatory norms that hinder the overall well-being of marginalized groups in society.

The government remains committed to ensuring the safety and dignity of all individuals, regardless of their identity or background, by taking action to improve equity in the justice system, prevent family violence and combat workplace sexual harassment.

Actions to End Gender-Based Violence and Support Access to Justice

Previous Budget Actions

  • By December 2023, 13 bilateral agreements were signed and announced with the provinces and territories to support the implementation of the National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence.
  • To Address Workplace Harassment, Discrimination, and Violence in the federal public service, in October 2023, the government announced the members of a panel of experts that will provide recommendations to the government on the design and creation of a new restorative engagement program for employees.
  • To support work to Address Systemic Racism in Public Safety Institutions, the RCMP launched the Race-Based Data Collection pilot on January 8, 2024, in three sites (Thompson, Manitoba; Whitehorse, Yukon; and Wood Buffalo, Alberta), with two sites in British Columbia and Nova Scotia to follow in spring 2024.
  • In 2023, it was announced that $25 million was allocated to support new projects to Fight Radicalization to Violence through the Community Resilience Fund. This is in addition to the more than $35 million the Fund has provided to 48 projects since 2017.
  • To Maintain Effective Oversight of Canada's Correctional System, the Office of the Correctional Investigator conducted investigations into issues impacting federally incarcerated women and gender diverse individuals.

Budget 2024 Actions*

  • Support for Indigenous Justice Programming aims to contribute to reducing the overrepresentation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system.
  • First Nations and Inuit-led Policing will support culturally responsive policing in Indigenous communities.
  • Continued funding for immigration and refugee legal aid will support access to justice for vulnerable asylum seekers who cannot afford legal services.
  • The recommendations of the Future of Sport in Canada Commission will help ensure that all sport participants have a safe and positive experience in sport.
  • Taking Assault Weapons Off Our Streets will contribute to reducing firearms-related intimate partner violence.
Poverty Reduction, Health and Well-Being

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Poverty Reduction, Health, and Well-Being
Goal: Reduced poverty and improved health outcomes

Every Canadian should be free from poverty, with ensured access to essential services and social protections for a high quality of life.

Poverty and core housing need

Official poverty rate (%, 2015-2021)
Official poverty rate (%, 2015-2021)
Text version
Men Women
2015 14.1 14.8
2016 12.4 13.4
2017 11.7 12.1
2018 11.3 11.1
2019 9.9 10.7
2020 6.3 6.4
2021 7 7.7
Official poverty rate and core housing need (%, 2021)
Official poverty rate and core housing need (%, 2021)
Text version
2021 Poverty Core housing need
Total 7.4 7.7
Lone parent 16.1 19.4
Indigenous 12.3 13.2
Immigrant 8.1 10.7
Racialized group 9.5 11.3
65+ years 5.6 8.9
0 to 17 years 6.4 8.8
Food security
Moderate or severe food insecurity (15+ years, %, 2021-2022)
Moderate or severe food insecurity (15+ years, %, 2021-2022)
Text version
2021 2022
Total 11.2 12.9
Lone parent 27.3 30
Indigenous 21.9 24.1
Immigrant 12.7 14
Racialized group 14.6 16.8
65+ years 5.7 6.3
0 to 17 years 13.6 16.8
Life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth (years, 1980-2022)
Life expectancy at birth (years, 1980-2022)
Text version
Men Women
1980 71.6 78.8
1981 72 79.2
1982 72.3 79.3
1983 72.7 79.6
1984 73 79.8
1985 73 79.8
1986 73.2 79.9
1987 73.5 80.2
1988 73.6 80.3
1989 73.9 80.5
1990 74.3 80.7
1991 74.5 80.8
1992 74.8 81.1
1993 74.7 80.9
1994 74.9 81
1995 75.1 81
1996 75.4 81.2
1997 75.7 81.3
1998 76 81.4
1999 76.2 81.6
2000 76.6 81.8
2001 76.9 82
2002 77.2 82
2003 77.3 82.2
2004 77.7 82.4
2005 77.8 82.5
2006 78.3 82.9
2007 78.3 82.9
2008 78.5 83.1
2009 78.9 83.3
2010 79.2 83.5
2011 79.4 83.7
2012 79.6 83.8
2013 79.7 83.9
2014 79.8 83.9
2015 79.8 83.9
2016 79.9 84
2017 79.8 84
2018 79.8 84
2019 80.2 84.4
2020 79.5 84
2021 79.3 84
2022 79.1 83.6
Cause of death
Distribution of leading causes of death (%, 2022)
Distribution of leading causes of death (%, 2022)
Text version
Women Men
Cerebrovascular diseases 5 4
Accidents 5 6
COVID-19 6 6
Diseases of heart 16 18
Cancer 24 25
Physical activity
Percentage of persons meeting physical activity guidelines (12+ years, %, 2021)*
Percentage of persons meeting physical activity guidelines (12+ years, %, 2021)*
Text version
Both Women+ Men+
Total 53.9 50.7 57.2
Racialized group 46 43.3 48.5
Indigenous 59.1 54.4 63.8
Immigrant 47.3 46.7 47.8
2SLGBTQ+ 59.8 60.6 58.7
Psychological well being
Percentage of persons reporting good, very good or excellent mental health (15+ years, %, 2022)*
Percentage of persons reporting good, very good or excellent mental health (15+ years, %, 2022)*
Text version
Women+ Men+
Total 83.4 87.3
Racialized group 84.1 90
Indigenous 72.2 78.9
Immigrant 87.5 89.6
2SLGBTQ+ 55.9 69.6
Deaths by suicide (rate per 100,000, 2000-2022)
Deaths by suicide (rate per 100,000, 2000-2022)
Text version
Men Women
2000 18.4 5.2
2001 18.6 5.2
2002 18.4 5
2003 18.5 5.4
2004 17.3 5.4
2005 17.9 5.4
2006 16.7 5
2007 16.7 5.3
2008 16.8 5.5
2009 17.9 5.3
2010 17.6 5.6
2011 17 5.7
2012 17.3 5.4
2013 17.4 5.7
2014 17.9 6.1
2015 18.4 6.3
2016 16.3 5.7
2017 18.4 6.2
2018 18.7 6.1
2019 18.6 5.8
2020 16.5 5.4
2021 14.9 4.9
2022 13.9 4.6
Early motherhood
Early motherhood: live births (rate per 1,000, women, 15-19 years, 1991-2022)
Early motherhood: live births (rate per 1,000, women, 15-19 years, 1991-2022)
Text version
Year Live births
1991 25.8
1992 25.6
1993 25
1994 25.1
1995 24.4
1996 22.2
1997 20.1
1998 19.8
1999 18.7
2000 17.2
2001 16.1
2002 15.1
2003 14.4
2004 13.6
2005 13.3
2006 13.7
2007 13.9
2008 14.2
2009 14.1
2010 13.3
2011 12.4
2012 12.1
2013 11.2
2014 10.4
2015 9.5
2016 8.5
2017 7.8
2018 6.7
2019 6.2
2020 5.7
2021 5.1
2022 4.4

Note: * As the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender protects confidentiality. People in the category "non-binary persons" are distributed into the other two-gender categories and denoted by the "+" symbol.

Sources: Census of population, Canadian Income Survey, Vital Statistics Birth Database, Vital Statistics Death Database, Centre for Demography, Canadian Community Health Survey, Aboriginal Peoples Survey, General Social Survey.

In recent years, substantial progress has been made to reduce poverty overall and for vulnerable sub-populations. Furthermore, Canadians are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. Continued progress is still needed, especially on food insecurity, adequate affordable housing, and mental health.

The government continues to make targeted investments to support Canadians who need it most, including by delivering unprecedented support for Canadians with disabilities through the Canada Disability Benefit, introducing a Canadian Dental Care Plan, and making progress on addressing the high cost of living.

Poverty is a multidimensional issue, with causes and effects that interact to produce cycles of poverty, impede intergenerational mobility, and erode the foundations for long-term well-being. It is a fundamental right of individuals to live their lives in dignity and free of severe material deprivation.

Actions to Support Poverty Reduction, Health, and Well-Being

Previous Budget Actions

  • Since the launch of Reaching Home: Canada's Homelessness Strategy in 2019, 71,580 people were placed into more stable housing through the program and 125,154 people received prevention or shelter diversion services. Results are cumulative (for 2019-2023) and as of December 2023.
  • Funding provided through the Sexual and Reproductive Health Fund has enabled a three-fold increase in the number of people receiving travel and logistical support to access abortion services.
  • Through Food Banks Canada, 392 pilot locations for the Menstrual Equity Fund Pilot, reaching 570,000 low-income individuals each month.
  • The Canadian Institutes of Health Research launched the National Women's Health Research Initiative in fall 2022, in partnership with Women and Gender Equality Canada. The high-priority areas were defined in consultation with over 160 community experts across Canada through an Ideas and Learning Fair.
  • To date, over 406,000 children under 12 have received the interim Canada Dental Benefit, helping ensure they can access the dental care they need.
  • The Canada Child Benefit, introduced in 2016, has helped lift 650,000 children out of poverty between 2015 and 2021.

Budget 2024 Actions*

  • Investments in the Strengthening Local Food Security and the Strengthening Access to Culturally Important Foods will help increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious and culturally appropriate food for equity-deserving groups, improving health and well-being.
  • Investments in First Nations and Inuit Health, Supporting Indigenous Mental Health, and Addressing Anti-Indigenous Racism in Health Care will advance health outcomes of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis people. This includes maintaining access to essential, high-quality, and culturally safe health services to improve the health and well-being of Indigenous populations.
  • Once established in partnership with willing provinces and territories, the new National Pharmacare Plan will improve health care for Canadians by improving access to contraceptives and diabetes medications.
  • The new Canada Disability Benefit would increase the financial well-being of low-income persons with disabilities by providing an income-tested benefit for those with a Disability Tax Credit certificate.
  • New funding for Addressing Homelessness and Encampments will help prevent and reduce homelessness for those with the highest housing needs, including those experiencing unsheltered homelessness or living in encampments.
  • Enhancing Enhancing Low- and No-Cost Bank Accounts will benefit low-income and moderate-income Canadians by enhancing affordable access to basic banking account services. Additionally, capping Non-Sufficient Funds (NSF) fees at $10 will reduce financial burdens on Canadians who find themselves in an NSF situation, by reducing the financial burden of missing a payment.
  • Once established, the new Youth Mental Health Fund will support community health organizations provide more mental health care for younger Canadians, and better equip these organizations to refer youth to other mental health services within their networks and partnerships.
Pillar: Gender Equality Around  the World

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Gender Equality Around the World
Goal: Promoting gender equality to build a more peaceful, inclusive, rules-based, and prosperous world

Canada is a leader and champion for gender equality, and will continue to advance efforts that empower women, girls, and gender-diverse people both domestically and abroad.

Education and skills

Adult literacy rate by sex and income country group (15+ years, %, 2022 or latest)
Adult literacy rate by sex and income country group (15+ years, %, 2022 or latest)
Text version
Men Women
Upper middle income 97.2 94.7
Lower middle income 83.7 71.9
Low income 69.6 54.3
Share of bachelor's degree graduates by field for each gender, OECD average (%, 2021)
Share of bachelor's degree graduates by field for each gender, OECD average (%, 2021)
Text version
Complete list of fields - WEF Figure 2.12 2021 2021
Men Women
Business & Law 24 22
Health & Welfare 7 20
Education 5 14

sciences & arts
18 26
Engineering 23 6
Natural sciences & Math 6 5
ICT's 10 2
Other 7 5

Economic participation and prosperity

Female labour force participation rate, by income group (15+ years, %, 1990-2023)
Female labour force participation rate, by income group (15+ years, %, 1990-2023)
Text version
Low income High income
1991 59.5 49.4
1992 59.5 49.5
1993 59.3 49.4
1994 59.3 49.8
1995 59.5 49.8
1996 59.5 50.1
1997 59.5 50.4
1998 59.4 50.5
1999 59.5 50.7
2000 59.6 51
2001 59.5 51
2002 59.3 51
2003 59.1 51.1
2004 59 51.2
2005 58.9 51.5
2006 58.3 51.8
2007 57.9 51.9
2008 57.5 52.1
2009 57.2 52.1
2010 56.9 52.1
2011 56.7 52
2012 56.4 52.2
2013 56.4 52.3
2014 56.5 52.4
2015 56.6 52.4
2016 56.6 52.8
2017 56.6 53
2018 56.4 53.3
2019 56.2 53.7
2020 55.4 53
2021 55.6 53.5
2022 55.2 54
2023 55.2 54.4
Countries without gender employment protections (%, 2023)
Countries without gender employment protections (%, 2023)
Text version
Countries (%, 2023)
No prohibition against gender discrimination in employment 16
No legislation on sexual harassment in employment 23
No mandate on equal remuneration for work of equal value 49
Dismissal of pregnant workers is permitted 22
Leadership and democratic participation
Women's participation in select public sector leadership positions – globally (%)*
Women's participation in select public sector leadership positions – globally (%)*
Text version
Female participation
Head of State 11
Head of Government 10
Ministerial positions 23
Parliamentarians 27
Local government 34
Judiciary positions 42

Gender-based violence

Share of women who were first married before age 18 (20-24 years, %, 2022 or latest year)
Share of women who were first married before age 18 (20-24 years, %, 2022 or latest year)
Text version
Sub-Saharan Africa 32
South Asia 26
Middle East/North Africa 16
Latin America/
Eastern Europe 6
East Asia/Pacific 8
Central Asia 6
Number of reported cases of conflict-related sexual violence (2019-2022)
Number of reported cases of conflict-related sexual violence (2019-2022)
Text version
Women and Girls Men and Boys
2019 2724 114
2020 2440 102
2021 3194 99
2022 2308 147
Sexual health
Can make decisions about sex and reproduction (%, married women aged 15-49, 2023)
Can make decisions about sex and reproduction (%, married women aged 15-49, 2023)
Text version
Decisions about own health care Decisions on use of contraceptive Say no to sex
World 75 89 76

Note: * Data as of January 1, 2023, with exception of parliamentarians (January 1, 2024) and judiciary (2017).

Sources: World Bank, World Economic Forum, Inter-Parliamentary Women, United Nations (UNICEF, UN Women).

International gender equality metrics have improved in key areas such as labour force participation and literacy rates. However, significant gaps persist between women of different income cohorts, and women continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields in post-secondary educational attainment as well as industry leadership.

Gender equality is a fundamental human right and is at the core of a more peaceful world. Women and girls often act as agents of peace by addressing root causes of conflicts. Yet, conflict resolution processes frequently exclude women. In this context, Canada recently released Foundations for Peace, its third national action plan on the Women, Peace and Security agenda. Through this plan, the government commits to supporting gender equality and to promoting and protecting the rights and agency of women, girls and gender-diverse people. These commitments guide Canada's international assistance to combat gender inequality abroad.

In recognition of the disproportionate impact suffered by women and girls in conflict regions, including in Ukraine and the Middle East, the government continues to prioritize humanitarian assistance efforts. Further, Canada made a bold commitment to raise its global health spending to $1.4 billion per year, starting in 2023, half of which is dedicated to sexual and reproductive health and rights. As a world leader in gender budgeting and the promotion of women's rights, Canada stands at the forefront of efforts to empower and advance opportunities of women and girls around the world.

Actions to Support Gender Equality Around the World

Previous Budget Actions

  • In 2019, Canada launched a ten-year commitment to advance the health and rights of women and girls around the world (2020-2030). As part of this effort, Canada committed to increasing its global health funding to reach an average of $1.4 billion each year, starting in 2023, of which $700 million will be dedicated to sexual and reproductive health and rights.
  • In 2021, Canada provided $165 million in humanitarian assistance to address the life-saving needs of those affected by conflict and natural disasters around the world. Canada's gender-responsive approach to humanitarian action aims to address the specific needs and priorities of people in vulnerable situations, particularly women and girls. For example, Canada supported 51.5 million people, 28 million of which were women and girls, in 40 countries and territories through the Central Emergency Response Fund.
  • Since the start of Russia's war in Ukraine, Canada has provided over $352.5 million in humanitarian assistance funding to help Ukrainians access primary health care; water, sanitation; multipurpose cash assistance and non-food items; child protection and sexual and gender-based violence services; and women and girls' safe spaces.
  • Canada has adopted a feminist approach to environment and climate action, including in the delivery of the $5.3 billion international climate finance commitment from 2021‑22 to 2025-26.  For example, Canada's climate finance is helping smallholder farmers in Latin America and the Caribbean—including thousands of women—to adopt practices and technologies that enable them to adapt to climate change and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

Budget 2024 Actions*

  • Reconstruction and Development Support for Ukraine will benefit the people of Ukraine and other EBRD countries of operations in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region, by supporting inclusive economic growth, with strong gender equality considerations integrated into EBRD projects.
  • Sustainable Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean will generate financing for private sector-led efforts to advance gender equality, inclusivity, and diversity across IDB Invest's 25 borrowing member countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. IDB Invest operations are expected to prioritize improving economic opportunities for women, as well as Indigenous People, Afro-descendants, and LGBTQ+ persons.
  • Increasing Canada's International Humanitarian Assistance in 2024-25 and 2025-26 will help address growing needs globally. This measure will directly benefit vulnerable people affected by humanitarian crises in low-income countries. Funding provided will be guided by Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy, which supports well-designed programming that responds to the specific needs of women and girls.

Summary of Budget 2024's Gender and Diversity Impacts

This summary provides a statistical analysis of the gender and diversity impacts for the new investments presented in Budget 2024. It leverages key information provided in the Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus) Departmental Summary Template to illustrate how gender and diversity considerations are central to budgetary decisions. By leveraging gender and diversity analysis, the government is better able to understand who is impacted by its policies and identify where transformative supports are most needed.

Timing of GBA Plus

Chart 1
Timing of GBA Plus
Chart 1: Timing of GBA Plus
Text version
Existing 9% 12%
Early 42% 39%
Mid-point 34% 32%
Later 15% 17%

Budget 2024 continues to demonstrate the timeliness of GBA Plus considerations in informing budgetary measures, with over 70 per cent of measures having completed GBA Plus at the early and mid-stages. At least 12 per cent of measures relied on existing GBA Plus analysis, which is mainly attributable to the extension of existing government programs and improvements in the availability of disaggregated data. An interesting finding is that for some of these measures that used existing GBA Plus, an iterative policy lens was applied to identify any barriers or negative impacts that may have emerged since the initiative came into effect. As an example  Boosting Regional Economic Growth also identified specific barriers for specific subgroups such as women, Indigenous people, and persons with disabilities in accessing this program and proposes a responsive approach. This includes Regional Development Agencies adopting best practices to improve inclusivity, sharing of tools, strategies, and training. The number of budget measures that considered GBA Plus at a later stage (17 per cent) is marginally higher than previously reported trends.

Timing of GBA Plus matters, as attested by the recent findings and recommendations in the 2022 Office of the Auditor General and 2023 Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology Reports on GBA Plus, which emphasized the importance of conducting GBA Plus early in the policy development process. Such a consistent and timely approach helps ensure that all funding decisions are made with an understanding of how diverse groups of Canadians will be affected.

In addition to helping fill gaps in analysis, WAGE provides support to the broader gender budgeting process through capacity building and supporting GBA Plus Focal Points, who in turn contribute their expertise to their home organizations. Budget 2024 benefited from WAGE expertise and that of the broader GBA Plus community of practice, helping to ensure that government departments leveraged disaggregated data, relevant research, and the insights of diverse people who are experts through experience, as part of the development of budget proposals.

GBA Plus Responsive Approaches

Chart 2
Responsive Approaches
Chart 2: Responsive Approaches
Text version
Count %
Negative Impacts Possible Includes Mitigation Strategies 3 23%
No Mitigation Strategies 10 77%
Barriers to Access/Participation Possible Includes Steps for Reducing Barriers 43 96%
No Steps for Reducing Barriers 2 4%

In Budget 2024, 16 per cent of measures identified a potential barrier to access or participation for a specific demographic group. For most measures that identified a barrier (96 per cent), a responsive approach was developed to improve access or help remove the barrier. Like previous budgets, barriers tend to emerge around thematic areas such as geography, access to technology, and participation of underrepresented groups in sectors that have been traditionally dominated by men. Examples of barriers and responsive actions in Budget 2024 include:

Budget 2024 also includes measures that proactively included a GBA Plus responsive approach, in anticipation of barriers/negative impacts emerging. As an example, to further strengthen Further Actions on Predatory Lending, the government will be implementing measures to enhance enforcement, to provide additional protection for borrowers under the Criminal Code. Additionally, the government would also work closely with provinces and territories to explore best practices on measures that reduce financial stress for low-income Canadians. First Nations Emergency Management and Preparedness would ensure that programming is flexible, culturally sensitive, responsive to the unique strengths and customs of First Nations communities, and adaptive to the evolving challenges resulting from emergency events. In a similar vein, the Family Violence Prevention Program would also include actions to help ensure that when Indigenous women, girls and 2SLGBTQQIA people access shelters or transitional housing, that these supports are without cultural barriers.

Target Population

Chart 3
Share of Budget 2024 Investments by Target Population
($ value of measures*)
Share of Budget 2024 Investments by Target Population

*Excluding Revenue and Savings Measures

Text version
Target Population Total 6-Year Accrual
All Canadians 20,981.80
Specific Industry/Sector/Region 10,174.63
Other Subgroups 7,883.57
Indigenous Peoples 8,727.49
Persons with Disabilities 5,664.52
Low-Income Individuals 4,643.14
Total 58,075.16

Budget 2024 considers the needs of the diverse Canadian population, to ensure that budgetary decisions are underpinned with an equity focus. Over a third (36 per cent) of the Budget 2024 measures are targeted at all Canadians, while the remaining share is targeted at specific groups.

Indigenous measures account for 15 per cent of targeted Budget 2024 investments. This is largely driven by the On-Reserve Income Assistance , which would help cover daily living costs and provides access to employment supports, for primarily low-income people and persons with disabilities living on-reserve, who are predominantly First Nations. As well, there are also targeted investments in First Nation K-12 Education and First Nation Post-Secondary Education, to provide high-quality and culturally appropriate education for First Nations students, including students with disabilities. For working-age (18 to 64) persons with disabilities, the Canada Disability Benefit  will help remove financial barriers facing this group. As an example, working-age persons with disabilities experience poverty at about twice the rate as working-age persons without disabilities. The share of Budget 2024 investments targeted at persons with disabilities is about 10 per cent.

The Low-Income Individuals and Other Subgroups category, which account for 8 per cent and 14 per cent of Budget 2024 investments respectively, includes groups such as low-income people, single-parent households, Black and racialized people, and newcomers. These groups are overrepresented amongst those facing core housing need, which is targeted through measures such as the Canada Rental Protection Fund, Federal Community Housing Initiative, Apartment Construction Loan Program, and Affordable Housing Fund Program. As well since low-income groups are more likely to experience food insecurity, measures like A National School Food Program and Strengthening Local Food Security are expected to benefit these groups proportionally more than others.

The share of investments that targets Specific Industries, Sectors and Regions accounts for 17 per cent of investments in Budget 2024. These include sectors such as construction, and industries related to arts and culture, and media.

Expected Benefits: Gender

Chart 4
Share of Budget 2024 Investments by Gender
($ value of measures*)
Chart 4: Share of Budget 2024 Investments by Gender

*Excluding Revenue and Savings Measures

Text version
Gender Identity Accrual %
Gender Balanced 34,041.08 59%
Men 3,494.88 6%
Women 6,054.98 10%
Defence 7,914.98 14%
Housing 6,569.25 11%
Total 58,075.16 84%

A significant share of measures (84 per cent) in Budget 2024 are considered "gender balanced"—that is, they are not expected to disproportionately benefit either men or women. As an example, the new Canada Disability Benefit would equally benefit women and men, as well as gender-diverse people with disabilities. Similarly, Indigenous-focused investments such as On-Reserve Income Assistance and Maintaining Non-Insured Health Benefits do not have differentiated impacts for different genders. The share of investments that are gender balanced is also largely driven by support for defence-related and housing measures. All men, women, and other gender-diverse people stand to benefit from a safe and secure Canada. Similarly, men, women, and gender-diverse people all stand to benefit from a safe and affordable place to call home.

The share of Budget 2024 measures that directly and indirectly benefit women is about 10 per cent. As an example, launching a National Pharmacare Plan expected to disproportionately benefit women through improved access to contraception, which has been attributed to higher educational attainment, narrowing the gender pay gap, and lowering the poverty rate among women. Young women account for 60 per cent of financial aid recipients and would therefore receive disproportionate benefits from Increasing Student Grants and Loans. For women who are older, but still aspire to upskill, Helping People Return to School would provide them with the supports that they need. Indigenous women tend to face higher levels of vulnerability compared to non-Indigenous women. As an example, Indigenous women, children, and 2SLGBTQQIA people are more likely to face barriers when accessing health programs and services. Women would therefore disproportionately benefit from investments in Supporting Indigenous Mental Health and Addressing Anti-Indigenous Racism in Health Care.

Women also indirectly benefit from measures such as Addressing Homelessness and Encampments, as homeless support workers are needed, and these workers are predominantly women. As another example, Indigenous women would indirectly benefit from investments in Renewing First Nations Core Governance and New Fiscal Relationship Funding, as the programming for this measure will include a responsive approach to help ensure that women and other underrepresented groups achieve higher levels of representation across Indigenous governments. In other occupations where women are underrepresented such as Red Seals trades, there is evidence that gender imbalances could be gradually improving over time. As an example, the share of newly certified women in some Red Seal trades traditionally dominated by men (e.g., carpentry, electrical) has grown significantly since 2015. The share of newly certified women in the carpentry and electrical trades has increased from 1.6 per cent to 3.5 per cent and from 2.5 per cent to 3.9 per cent, respectively, since 2015.

The share of measures that directly benefit men 6 per cent reflects their overrepresentation in incidences of homelessness, the criminal justice system, and immigration detention. When unpacked from an intersectional lens, the data shows that these are men who are most likely to suffer economic disadvantage, and are more likely to be Indigenous, Black and racialized, newcomers, and increasingly have mental health disabilities. Some of the Budget 2024 measures that directly benefit men include Addressing Homelessness and Encampments and Criminal Justice Legal Aid.

Expected Benefits: Additional Characteristics

Chart 5
Direct and Indirect Benefits by Subgroup, Number of Measures
Chart 5: Direct and Indirect Benefits by Subgroup, Number of Measures
Text version
Beneficiary Count
Disability 50
Indigenous/First Nations 102
Black or Racialized/Visible Minority 75
Rural 42
Urban 21
Newcomers or Immigrants 46
Lone Parent 14
Workers 87

An assessment of direct and indirect impacts indicates that Budget 2024 measures would benefit diverse Canadians and address a range of needs.

Housing measures are targeted at those populations that are overrepresented in the statistics related to core housing need. Measures such as the Protecting and Expanding Affordable Housing, Keeping Non-Profit and Co-op Homes Affordable, Building Apartments, Bringing Rents Down, and Enhancing the Affordable Housing Fund  would therefore benefit a range of populations, with intersecting identity factors such as single-parent households, urban dwellers, Black and racialized people, and newcomers.

Rurality can often act as an invisible barrier. Budget 2024 makes strategic investments in helping ensure that rural and remote populations are not negatively impacted by economic, social, or even environmental harms. Indigenous people are also more likely to be located in rural and remote areas. Measures such as enhanced funding for First Nations and Inuit-Led Policing will help ensure that Indigenous communities, including remote and rural communities, receive policing services that meet their unique needs.

Budget 2024 also benefits a diverse profile of workers, across a range of sectors, who are needed to support the prosperity of the Canadian economy. As an example, investments in the More Affordable Child Care  would benefit workers who are predominantly women, as this group makes up approximately 96 per cent of people employed in the child care sector. Workers who are younger would benefit from the Jobs and Skills Training for Gen Z and Helping Students Gain Work Experience , giving them the opportunity to gain meaningful work experience, which is important during early career development. High-skilled workers would benefit from Securing the Canadian Biofuels Industry , which spans clean technology development, manufacturing, fuel transportation, construction, utilities, and feedstock production. Workers in transportation-related industries would also benefit from Reliable Transportation in Atlantic Canada, Small Craft Harbours , and the Transportation Security Clearance Program , which are important investments to support the movement of people and goods in Canada. For the federal public service, An Accessible, Diverse, Equitable, and Inclusive Federal Public Service  would continue work to address barriers in federal public service workplaces, particularly for persons with disabilities. Cumulatively, the measures that benefit workers either directly or indirectly ensure that the diversity of talent and skills in Canada is adequately supported.

Income Distribution Impacts

Chart 6
Expected Income Distribution Benefits
($ value of measures*)
Chart 6: Expected Income Distribution Benefits

*excluding revenue and savings measures

Text version
Count 6-Year Total %
Strongly Benefits High Income Individuals 3 2,287.00 4%
Somewhat Benefits High Income Individuals 29 1,861.44 3%
No Income Impacts 154 24,242.67 42%
Somewhat Benefits Low Income Individuals 102 17,553.91 30%
Strongly Benefits Low Income Individuals 31 12,130.14 21%
Total 319 58,075.16 100%

A substantial proportion of measures in Budget 2024 (about 50 per cent) will benefit lower-income Canadians.

Vulnerable groups that would disproportionately benefit from Budget 2024 investments include Indigenous people, newcomers, and persons with disabilities. For example, the Canada Disability Benefit  would benefit working-age (18-64) persons with disabilities, and particularly those living in deep poverty.

As another example, measures such as First Nations and Inuit Health would benefit First Nations and Inuit populations, especially those who are lower-income, as they tend to face higher barriers in accessing health programming and services, while On-Reserve Income Assistance would also primarily benefit low-income Indigenous people , living on-reserve.

Newcomers, specifically those who are asylum claimants, would benefit from Sheltering Asylum Claimants which would help asylum claimants in need of safe and stable transitional housing support.

Intergenerational Impacts

Chart 7
Expected Intergenerational Impacts
($ value of measures*)
Chart 7: Expected Intergenerational Impacts

*excluding revenue and savings measures

Text version
Row Labels Count Total %
Seniors and Baby Boomers 7 2,681.70 5%
No Intergenerational Impacts 254 41,045.67 70%
Youth and Future Generation 58 14,347.79 25%
Total 319 58,075.16 100%

While the majority of new Budget 2024 measures are expected to carry benefits for Canadians across all generations, a sizeable share of investments responds to a changing Canadian population—baby boomers are getting older, and immigration is boosting numbers amongst younger generations—by making key investments to help ensure a good quality of life for all Canadians, particularly young people.

At least a quarter of new investments in Budget 2024 are expected to benefit youth and future generations. Key drivers include wide-ranging supports for schooling, entrepreneurial activities, development of digital skills, and reduction of barriers for workplace skills and training. Several measures also provide targeted supports for Indigenous youth. Most of the investments in youth and future generations have implications for the Gender Results Framework—which means that they are sizeable in both scope and reach, to move the needle on gender equality outcomes. The investments in young people in this budget reflect an awareness of targeted supports for diverse young people, and those at different stages in their transition to early adulthood.

Millennials and Gen Z, who are particularly affected by housing issues, such as renting at higher rates than older generations, stand to benefit the most from increased investments in housing. While these measures will take some time to see results materialize, young people will in particular reap these benefits in their lifetimes.

As an example, First Nations K-12 Education and First Nations Post-Secondary Education is targeted at First Nations' children, youth, and communities, to help ensure that Indigenous students have more opportunities to access post-secondary education, given that they experience significantly lower levels of educational attainment relative to the non-Indigenous youth population. Indigenous children and youth also benefit from supports for Indigenous culture and language, which are central to identity, belonging, and cultural preservation for future generations.

Considering that improved access to nutrition is also associated with improved learning outcomes, this budget is making investments in A National School Food Program, to help ensure that Canadian children are given more opportunities to succeed in the classroom.

Budget 2024 also prioritizes giving young people the skills and opportunities needed to thrive in the labour market. Increasingly, digital skills can unlock further economic and educational opportunities for young people—as an example, the ability to engage in online learning, develop the necessary skills for new jobs in emerging industries, or even work remotely. The government's previous investments in Coding Skills for Kids have to date helped reach 4.5 million young people, and Budget 2024 will advance the next stage of the program to reach even more young people in Canada. Budget investments also support helping young people develop the skills and experiences needed to successfully transition into the labour market. As an example, programs such as the Helping Students Gain Work Experience would provide post-secondary students with work experience related to their field of study, while the Jobs and Skills Training for Gen Z also emphasizes specific programming for young people facing multiple barriers to employment, including persons with disabilities. In addition, Empowering Young Entrepreneurs  would empower young people, including Indigenous entrepreneurs.

Among measures that predominantly benefit seniors, the Old Age Security (OAS) remains the government's largest program. OAS payments are indexed to inflation, and the program is projected to deliver $80.6 billion to more than seven million seniors this year. There would also be disproportionate benefits for seniors through Expanding the Disability Supports Deduction, as those over the age of 60 accounted for more than 30 per cent of claimants in 2021.

Budget 2024 recognizes the complexity of challenges facing Canadians in their various life stages, as well the hopes people may have, whether that is a safe, secure retirement, or the opportunity to learn new skills, land that dream job or even start a business. In this regard, Budget 2024 offers strategic investments to help ensure that no generation is left behind.

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